Between 2009 and 2013, this South-South cooperation project sought to review the rural vocational training methodology of the National Rural Learning Service (SENAR) of Brazil for technicians of the Institute of Agrarian Development (IDA) of Angola, with the initial objective of to promote the improvement of income and the quality of life of family farmers in the province of Kwanza Sul.
The predominant agriculture in Angola is subsistence, with rudimentary agricultural practices and the use of hand tools. As a result, the low productivity of crops limits the income and quality of life of small family farmers. In the coastal province of Kwanza Sul, the inefficient management of plantations has negative consequences for the livelihood of the families of the rural producers, who end up depending on the importation of food. Thus, the lower supply of food typical of the local diet compromises the food and nutritional security of these communities.
The training and professionalisation of technicians related to agriculture and rural producers are therefore a possible instrument to revitalize this productive sector and foster the growth of food production. The main challenge is to adapt more efficient agricultural methods to the characteristics of the Angolan rural environment, as well as to introduce them, through educational actions, in the sociocultural context of traditional communities.
In this cooperation project, technical training was the main strategy adopted to promote the improvement of the quality of life of rural communities in the province of Kwanza Sul, Angola. The SENAR technicians adapted the methodology of the rural vocational training courses used in Brazil to qualify Angolan farmers and rural workers. After the first diagnosis of local rural working conditions, technicians also included a module on the importance of the correct use of basic personal protective equipment, especially with regard to the safe handling of fertilizers. In particular, the project transferred knowledge through the training of 20 IDA technicians and local agents. Trained as instructors, they can now disseminate SENAR's methodology to a larger number of family farmers.
Thanks to the formations, some basic techniques adapted to the Angolan socio-cultural reality have helped to improve the productivity of the crops in the communities served. For example, family farmers have learned how to construct and manipulate a wooden instrument (called crowbar) that allows demarcating terrain in contours, a simple solution to protect plantations rooted in rough terrain from rainfall, and efficiency. Basic techniques of soil analysis also began to guide farmers on the fertility of the land. SENAR educators also conducted training on the use of ratchets, another very simple and efficient tool for fertilization and planting in small areas.
The exchange of professionals from both countries involved two visits of SENAR technicians to Angola between 2010 and 2012, and a visit of a group of 13 Angolan technicians to Brazil in 2012 to meet rural properties in Paraná. On this occasion, the group also participated in a program focused on management and entrepreneurship, in addition to training on the processing of soybeans for food use.
This cooperation project bore fruit in both countries: on the one hand, it took agricultural training techniques to Angola; on the other hand, laid the foundations for the development by SENAR of its own methodology for adapting programs of technical assistance and vocational training in other developing countries (the entity currently has a specific unit for international cooperation).
On the Brazilian side: Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) and National Rural Apprenticeship Service (SENAR)
For the Angolan side: Institute of Agrarian Development (IDA / Ministry of Agriculture)
Implementing agency: National Rural Apprenticeship Service (SENAR)
Daniel Küppel Carrara,
National Rural Apprenticeship Service (SENAR)
With a first phase carried out between 2011 and 2015, this South-South cooperation project aimed at replicating the PAIS (Integrated Agroecological and Sustainable Production) Program in Senegal, based on the success of this initiative in Brazil, where more than 10 thousand productive units have been implemented since 2005. The PAIS system is a social technology composed of simple processes of agroecological production that increase the supply of food, labor and income for small rural producers.
About 50% of Senegal's population lives in rural areas. In turn, the agriculture and fishing sector is very significant in the Senegalese economy, accounting for 14% of GDP and occupying about half of the active population. Rural Senegalese are mostly small farmers involved in subsistence farming; of these, 30% are affected by food insecurity.
Agriculture in Senegal is based on commercial crops (peanuts, cotton and vegetables) as well as on food crops (mainly cereals), both of which depend on the rains, which are expected for only three months a year. Farmers' productivity is reduced due to factors such as inadequate management of soils and degradation of ecosystems. This situation results, among others, in low levels of income of the families and in high rates of migration to the cities and even to other countries.
Working on small farms (around 0.5 ha each), the PAIS system aims at the integrated production of food for own consumption, with the possibility of marketing the surplus, being organized in a structure containing: a central chicken coop, vegetables planted in an agro-ecological backyard and a drip irrigation system. The main objectives of the PAIS are:
- the diversification of rural production and the adoption of agro-ecological management;
- the creation and organization of organic certification systems to add value to products and improve family nutrition; and
- increasing the income of rural producers.
In order to initiate the replication of the PAIS system in Senegal, a model unit was established, in which seven multiplier technicians were trained, who would later advise the families of farmers in the implementation of sustainable agroecological units (from land selection and soil preparation to production). Next, ten additional PAIS units were established, each family receiving a kit of the necessary implantation material and benefiting from technical follow-up for three years to carry out and monitor all the stages of the project.
Brazilian technicians conducted training in agroecology and the construction of small water reservoirs (for irrigation and fish farming), while the Senegalese National Agricultural Integration and Development Agency (ANIDA) provided field technical support and ensured the storage and distribution of the material of the kit. In addition to being part of the project management committee, ANIDA also supported the initiative with the supply of material and labor to install fences around the 11 initial PAIS units, guaranteeing them greater safety.
The main differential of this initiative was to encourage the associations and entrepreneurship of rural producers, with the promotion of the articulation of productive groups and affirmative actions that generate sustainability, acting in the instances of both government and civil society. Some positive effects of the project exceeded expectations; for example, the change in the income of beneficiary families, which, on average, rose by more than 60% (reaching more than 200% in some cases), and a substantial increase in the concern for the environment and sustainable use of water.
Due to the good results obtained, the project ended up triggering the adoption by ANIDA of a public policy denominated "Naatangué Farm" ('naatangué' meaning 'abundance' in local Wolof language); the objective of the Senegalese government is to disseminate the establishment of sustainable agro-ecological units throughout the country.
Supported by: Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC)
On the Brazilian side: Technical Assistance and Rural Extension Company (EMATER-DF) and PAIS Consulting in Agroecology
On the Senegalese side: National Agency for Agricultural Integration and Development (ANIDA)
Aly Ndiaye, Agronomist,
Consultant, PAIS Consultancy in Agroecology
Implemented between 2014 and 2017, this South-South cooperation project aimed to encourage the increase of food production in Botswana through the development of cooperativism and rural associativism. Funded by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) and run by the Organization of Brazilian Cooperatives (OCB) with the technical support of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), the project had a pilot character and focused on vegetable producers.
Of the two million inhabitants of Botswana, 39% live in rural areas; however, the vast majority of the territory (85%) is covered by the Kalahari desert. With a fragile economy and poorly diversified agricultural production, the country is heavily dependent on food imports. For example, the import of vegetables accounts for 75% of all food consumed nationally, making this sector strategic to the issue of food security. In this sense, the Botswana government has sought to encourage local producers to organize themselves into cooperatives so that they can better deal with problems they encounter individually, such as storage and transport of production. Farmers can thus become more competitive and cooperate in lowering the prices of staple foods to the final consumer.
The project to strengthen cooperativism and rural associativism in Botswana aimed to disseminate the cooperative model for the promotion of agricultural development in the country. The cooperative dimension includes the acquisition of appropriate knowledge for the shared and participative management of businesses, the commercial orientation and the organizational capacity of the producers. Such knowledge aims at giving farmers autonomy in management and creative and sustainable management possibilities, as well as representativeness and legitimacy with the market and the country.
The sharing of the Brazilian experience in cooperativism involved technical visits and training in two main axes: the empowerment of family producers and rural community leaders to act as multipliers of the cooperative model locally, and the awareness of representatives of regulatory bodies to include the practice of cooperativism in the formulation of public policies. With the collaboration of the Botswana government, producers with a cooperative profile - that is, market experts and the main difficulties for such ventures - were identified and, after this mapping, work and business plans were elaborated for the horticulture sector. The working meetings also involved civil society organizations such as the Botswana Cooperative Association (BOCA), the Botswana Cooperative Training Center and the Gaborone Central Market.
Training in Botswana and Brazil benefited a total of 43 people (including government agents and fruit and vegetable producers) and focused on planning, training and management of cooperatives, as well as carried out in partnership with EMBRAPA Hortaliças). Also during the training period, farmers in the North Kweneng community decided to found their own cooperative, which will serve as a model to be followed in other regions of the country. Recorded in November 2015, the North Kweneng Horticulture Cooperative, which currently has 14 cooperating families, is supported by the Botswana Ministry of Agriculture and already has all the necessary documentation to provide food to local government social programs.
Supported by: Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC)
On the Brazilian side: Organization of Brazilian Cooperatives (OCB) and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA)
From the botsuanese side: Ministry of Agriculture
João Marcos Silva Martins,
Institutional Relations Analyst,
Organization of Brazilian Cooperatives (OCB)
Resulting from an agreement between the governments of Brazil, Cape Verde and Senegal, and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the "Reference Centers in Electronic Census Data Collection in Africa" project is a platform for the exchange of experiences and the joint construction of innovative approaches with the aim of strengthening the continent's statistical institutes. Based on the successful experience of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in the implementation and operation of digital censuses in Brazil, the project aims to train the statistical institutes of Cape Verde and Senegal to act as multipliers of the methodology, promoting and facilitating the use of census data collection technologies by other interested African countries.
The demographic census is a central instrument to support the formulation and monitoring of a country's public policies. The production of better quality and timely data and indicators is essential for proposing, implementing, monitoring and evaluating public policies and development projects more suited to local realities. One of the challenges faced by the African Union to achieve the goals of the global "Agenda 2030" and the "Africa 2063 Agenda" is to promote a culture of evidence-based public policies and decision-making processes, which requires the availability and use of up-to-date information and information with a higher level of reliability. To this end, it is essential to invest in the capabilities of national statistical institutes, as well as to promote the adoption of geospatial information systems for the collection, analysis, production and dissemination of disaggregated data.
Based on the experience of Brazil (which in 2010 carried out the first census of population and digital housing in the world), this South-South cooperation project, initiated in 2016, aims at enabling African institutions to be empowered to train interested in using the census data collection methodology. For this project, partnerships were established with the national statistical institutes of Cape Verde and Senegal, two countries that had already carried out their last population censuses with the use of electronic data collection technology, with the support of IBGE. The migration of the traditional process of collecting census data through paper questionnaires to the digital format entails, among other benefits, substantial gains in terms of time and reliability, increasing the possibilities of monitoring and disseminating data in a timely manner.
The National Institute of Statistics (INE) of Cape Verde and the Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la Démographie (ANSD) of Senegal were trained in the techniques developed and used by the IBGE in the Brazilian population and agricultural censuses, in order to act as centers of digital censuses on the African continent. In order to cooperate with similar institutes from other countries, the two institutions learned about the whole process developed in Brazil for the adoption of the electronic census, as well as the impacts of such a change on IBGE operations. Sharing this experience enables African countries to make the necessary adaptations of the methodology to local institutional, territorial and socio-cultural realities, including their specificities in terms of existing demands and resources.
With a training plan jointly developed by all partners in the project, some 50 African technicians were trained at the end of 2017 to plan and implement electronic census operations. The contents of the training covered topics such as: South-South cooperation; pre-census planning; the creation of questionnaires; the electronic programming of the collection devices; dissemination and dissemination of results; and the awareness of the population about the importance of the census. The training also included practical workshops to carry out simulation exercises. Expected for 2018, the final phase of the project refers to the transfer of the knowledge acquired by INE and ANSD, and includes the supervision of IBGE during the first training that each Reference Center will do for the interested countries.
The project also calls for the mobilization of partners to finance the acquisition of mobile data collection devices, which will be shared in a rotating way with interested countries. The Reference Centers are expected to promote the establishment of complementary technical and scientific cooperation initiatives to carry out digital censuses, benefiting at least 18 African countries that anticipate censuses in the coming years. The project also aims at structuring a third reference center in Africa, this time in an Anglophone country (which will still be defined).
Supported by: Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
Implementing agency: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE)
Luciana Martins Prazeres,
Analyst, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE)
Between 2010 and 2017, the South-South cooperation project to support urban development in São Tomé and Príncipe was based on the expertise of Caixa Econômica Federal (CAIXA), a Brazilian public banking entity with extensive work in the areas of urban development, housing and management of social programs. Co-ordinated by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC), this project was articulated around three components - "Capacity building in the structuring and management of social development funds", "Territorial planning" and "Housing policy and non-conventional construction methodologies" - which should contribute in the long term to the institutional development and qualification of public management in the African archipelago. Through these components, the project allowed the drafting of proposals for legislation on land use planning, housing legislation and the constitution of social funds, in particular to support housing policy.
According to data from UNDP and the National Statistics Institute of São Tomé and Príncipe, about 50% of the country's population live below the poverty line and around 15% live in extreme poverty. This situation has repercussions, among others, on a housing situation marked by very precarious dwellings, built mainly on wood (from deforestation of native forests), deprived of basic sanitation conditions and cohabited by more than one family. Concentrating about two-thirds of the country's population, urban areas have unplanned outlying districts with insufficient infrastructure conditions in which the lower-income population lives.
The provision of decent housing for this part of the population poses a challenge for the national authorities, especially considering that the country did not have dedicated funding mechanisms nor specific legislation for the development and implementation of housing programs and projects (in particular with regard to social housing). In addition, conventional building materials (eg cement bricks, pipes and paints), and tools and construction equipment are not locally produced and are fully imported, at high cost. This fact is an additional burden for São Tomé and Príncipe's fragile economy, considering that, currently, more than 90% of the country's investment expenditure is derived from Official Development Assistance.
The Urban Development Support project aimed to qualify the São Toméan public management in relation to housing policies and instruments, and developed around three complementary components. The component "Training in the structuring and management of social development funds" supported the São Toméan government in the establishment of a social development fund for the provision of housing of social interest in the country. The joint wording of the proposal for the creation of the "Basic Law for the Controlled Cost Housing National System", approved by the Council of Ministers and sent to the National Assembly, and the technical training of the government agents involved are considered the major structural contributions that the project offered the implementation of a policy in the housing area.
The "Territorial Planning" component managed to transfer knowledge on urban planning and its specificities, in order to support the São Toméan government in the structuring of a policy in this area. The proposal for a "Basic Law for Territorial Planning and Town Planning Policy" and the proposal for a Decree-Law establishing the bases for the "Urban Expansion Plan of the City of São Tomé" (Setor Norte, between Gongá, Santo Amaro and Aeroporto), as well as for the expansion plans of the district capitals and the capital of the Autonomous Region of the Prince. The technical capacity created, the acquisition of equipment and software, and the institutionalization of the Land Management and Urban Development Management were considered positive impacts produced by the project, contributing to the strengthening of the institution responsible for conducting the policy.
Through the component "Housing policy and non-conventional construction methodologies", the team of technicians of the government of São Tomé and Príncipe were informed about the use of non-conventional construction methodologies, applicable to the country's reality, in order to optimize the standard constructive. The aim was to rationalize the use of equipment with high operational costs and materials from native forests, reducing the environmental impacts of the extraction. The disseminated methodology (the construction technique in soil-cement) was applied in the construction of two model residential units. This component also resulted in the preparation of a proposal for housing legislation for São Tomé and Príncipe and its implementation strategy.
Supported by: Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) and Caixa Econômica Federal (CAIXA)
On the Brazilian side: CAIXA
On the Sant'Anna side: Ministry of Public Works, Infrastructures, Transport and Communications, and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Cooperation and Communities
Fernando Vieira do Nascimento,
Executive Manager, National Management of International Relations Strategy,
Caixa Econômica Federal (CAIXA)
Executed between 2010 and 2016, the project for the Brazil-São Tomé e Príncipe Professional Training Center (CFP BRA-STP) resulted from a partnership between the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) and the National Industrial Apprenticeship Service (SENAI) for the dissemination of SENAI's successful experience in Brazil in terms of vocational training for young people and adults, and the management of vocational schools. Implanted in the capital of São Tomé, the CFP BRA-STP is aligned with the demands of Santander for skilled labor.
In São Tomé and Príncipe, about 50% of the population live below the poverty line and around 15% live in extreme poverty. The tertiary sector (mostly informal) accounts for approximately 60% of GDP and employs 60% of the active population. On the other hand, with a rate of 14%, unemployment particularly affects young people, who correspond to more than 60% of the national population. The country's shortcomings in the area of vocational training are a factor that fuels a vicious circle between poverty and social inequality, disfavoring socioeconomic development. The low qualification of the active population of São Tomé faces the lack of vocational training offer, which could contribute to increase the competitiveness of local companies and generate more job offers. In order to provide skilled labor for the services sector and the nascent industry (mainly in the construction sector), the São Toméan government expressed an interest in establishing a reference vocational training center in which young people and adults could receive training for their qualification for the job market.
The project for the Brazil - São Tomé and Príncipe Vocational Training Center (CFP BRA-STP) aimed to contribute to the socioeconomic development of São Tomé and Príncipe through the provision of vocational education, including for young people in search of their first job. The project included the construction in the city of São Tomé of the building housing the BRP-STP, as well as its technical-pedagogical structuring, in terms of the definition of the training offer, the training of human resources (instructors and managers of the Center) and the provision of didactic materials, furniture and equipment necessary for its operation. In addition to training provided by SENAI instructors in São Tomé and Príncipe, part of the SANTOMEN team that was to work in the Center was trained in technical schools of SENAI Pernambuco, in areas that would be covered in the courses of the CFP BRA-STP. Having granted the land and built a part of the Center's facilities, the São Toméan government actively participated in the definition of the courses to be offered: Civil Construction, Electricity, Metalworking, Welding, Mechanics of automobiles and motorcycles, Food processing and Computer science.
Inaugurated in 2014, the CFP BRA-STP consists of 6 classrooms (for up to 30 students each), a multipurpose room (for up to 60 students), 3 laboratories (computer science, hydraulics and food), 5 workshops , motorcycle mechanics, electricity, construction and welding), an auditorium (for up to 100 people) and a library, as well as administrative and support facilities. In all, the CFP BRA-STP has the capacity to train up to 800 students per day. The results of the project also include:
- the elaboration of the strategic plan of the CFP BRA-STP;
- implementation of the shared management of the CFP BRA-STP (whose responsibility was borne by the São Toméan government); and
- carrying out evaluation and monitoring missions.
Since its inauguration, the CFP BRA-STP has already trained more than 1,250 students. The success of this initiative has led SENAI to be recognized by the United Nations as one of the three most important institutions that promote quality education in the Southern Hemisphere. In addition to São Tomé and Príncipe, SENAI has been (or is still) involved with ABC and local governments in the implementation and / or restructuring of vocational training centers in Angola, Cape Verde, Guatemala, Guinea Bissau, Jamaica, Paraguay, Peru and Timor-Leste.
On the Brazilian side: Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC);
On the Santorini side: Ministry of Education, Culture and Science
Implementation agency: National Industrial Learning Service (SENAI)
Marconi Firmino da Silva,
In implementation since 2007, the South-South cooperation project to support urban development in Mozambique is aimed at the replication, adapted to the local context, of Brazilian policies, methodologies and practices, developed by Caixa Econômica Federal (CAIXA) for low-income populations. Focusing on the theme of housing in a broad way, the project contemplated support activities in different complementary areas, from the formulation of public policies and strategies to the improvement of traditional construction techniques.
One of the major challenges facing Mozambique is the provision of quality and quantity housing for its population (around 26.5 million people), especially considering that more than 50% of this population lives below the poverty line. In addition, 70% of Mozambicans live in rural areas, with restricted access to adequate materials and technologies for the construction of decent housing. According to UN-Habitat Mozambique, 84,000 new homes are needed annually in urban areas to accommodate natural population growth and rural-urban migration, without considering that at least 70% of existing urban housing is informal, with precarious access infrastructure and basic services.
In order to reduce the housing deficit in Mozambique, the Support for Urban Development project covered technical support activities in five areas:
(1) The development of a housing policy aimed at the low-income population (central axis of the initiative);
(2) The production of low-cost building materials based on locally available raw materials - including the structuring of Rural Associative Microenterprises (MERAs) for this purpose;
(3) The development of constructive typologies for housing of social interest;
(4) The implementation of a national system of construction indices and costs; and
(5) The elaboration of architectural projects for the reform of a technological center in the civil construction sector.
The activities focused on the exchange of professionals for the sharing of knowledge between the two countries. Knowing the experiences and the main agents involved in the five aspects of the project was the focus of the technical visits made to Brazil. The visits to Mozambique included, among others, the diagnosis of the local housing demands (urban and rural), and the infrastructures and existing material and technological resources related to the provision of housing, as well as the training of the responsible technicians and the rural communities involved to ensure the sustainability of the initiative.
The main results of the project include:
- The approval of the "Housing Policy and Strategy for Mozambique" in 2011 by the Council of Ministers, whose development was attended by technicians and communities, through workshops and regional debates in different provinces, as well as a national seminar.
- The transfer of knowledge (through two training sessions and the preparation of manuals) on the production of machines for the manufacture of soil-cement bricks and vegetable fiber tiles, low-cost materials suitable to the Mozambican reality. This training was articulated with the installation of an incubator of popular cooperatives for the production of adapted building materials at the Technological Center of Namialo (Nampula province), whose staff also received training in management.
- The design of five low-income housing projects: three for rural areas, one for urban and suburban areas, and one for people with special needs.
- The establishment of bases and partnerships for the creation of the Mozambican civil construction cost monitoring system (SINAGEC), in a replication adapted from the Brazilian System of Survey of Costs and Civil Construction Indexes (SINAPI).
- The elaboration of the architectural projects for the renovation and expansion of the Technological Center of Namialo, which will be directed to the research and training in the area of constructive technologies appropriate to the local reality (in articulation with the activities of the Laboratory of Engineering of Mozambique), seeking the strengthening of MERAs in the province.
This South-South cooperation project was one of the initiatives awarded under the 2013/2014 edition of the CAIXA Best Practices in Local Management Program, which biennially recognizes and disseminates successful experiences in the social sphere, carried out with funding, transfer of resources or support of CAIXA.
Supported by: Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC) and Caixa Econômica Federal (CAIXA)
On the Brazilian side: CAIXA, University of São Paulo (USP), State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)
On the Mozambican side: Ministry of Public Works and Housing
Fernando Vieira do Nascimento,
Executive Manager, National Management of International Relations Strategy,
Caixa Econômica Federal (CAIXA)
This cooperation project between Brazil and Cape Verde aimed at the joint elaboration of an economic feasibility study in the areas of handicrafts and the collection and recycling of garbage in the City of Praia, as a means of fomenting the generation of work and income, and the professionalization disadvantaged segments of the Cape Verdean population. The work was developed based on the concepts and principles of solidarity economy and cooperativism, following a structure similar to the Brazilian enterprises linked to the UNISOL association, in order to foster a development that is both environmentally sustainable and socially just.
Concentrating around 30% of Cape Verde's population, Cidade da Praia identified garbage collection and recycling as two strategic points of difficult organization. The garbage is not currently sorted, nor does it have a planned destination, due to the absence of a properly implemented recycling chain. Likewise, decent survival alternatives for people living in dump areas, in unhealthy and inhumane conditions, collecting leftover food (for feeding pigs) and recyclable materials are not promoted.
Another disadvantaged area in Cape Verde is local handicrafts. The City of Praia does not have its own identity in handmade clothing (based on ceramics, weaving, stones, wood, shells, crochets and embroidery) and many imported products are now commercialized. Crafts can be an important source of preservation of local culture and history, but need to improve the quality and added value of production, especially through the use of local raw materials.
In order for the local handicraft and refuse recycling sectors to be able to develop in a coherent and sustainable manner, and at the same time promote the generation of work and income for the population, and environmental preservation, it was necessary to elaborate a specific study that listed actions and structuring activities.
Held between 2011 and 2015, the project aimed to prepare a feasibility study for the sectors of handicraft and waste recycling in the City of Praia, based on the principles of solidarity economy and cooperativism. The study focused on the development of an action structuring methodology to: (1) map the formatting of productive chains in the target sectors; (2) evaluate the application of social technologies; (3) identify and encourage the participation of community leaders; and (4) support potential economic solidarity groupings.
The study was based on exchanges between the two countries. At the outset, a UNISOL team composed of representatives from the recycling and handicraft sectors was in Praia for contacts and information gathering. In the area of handicrafts, a diagnosis of the local artisans (about 50) was carried out in a participatory manner, identifying their socioeconomic profile, their needs and their priorities. This activity resulted in the joint preparation of a preliminary version of a project to strengthen the sector. In the area of recycling, after a visit to the City of Praia dump, a diagnosis was made of the potential of the recycling chain, together with garbage collectors (totaling 80 people), aiming at the development of solutions for the transformation of local reality . An evaluation was also made of materials with potential for recycling and the products to be manufactured and marketed, as well as the necessary investment and the financial return of the initiative.
In turn, a delegation from Cape Verde visited Brazilian experiences of UNISOL-related enterprises such as handicraft and garbage recycling cooperatives (including social projects with garbage collectors) and other local initiatives in the context of solidarity economy. The Cape Verdean representatives were also in the "National Handicraft Business Fair" ("FENEARTE"), participated in meetings with artisans and visited a landfill and a factory in Osasco, to learn about an example of transformation of recyclable material.
The feasibility study was finalized in 2015, indicating initiatives that could be implemented by the local administration of Praia City, as well as the means and steps necessary to do so. The proposals include, among others, a marketing strategy for handicrafts involving the Cape Verdean Ministry of Culture and the "National Handicraft Forum" ("FONARTES"), in order to enable better marketing conditions and income generation in this area. sector. It was also projected the implementation of a PET bottles processing unit, which foresees the acquisition of recyclable raw material, at fair prices, in the hands of the collectors, for the manufacture of brooms and other products.
On the Brazilian side: Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC);
On the Cape Verdean side: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Implementing agency: Central of Cooperatives and Solidarity Enterprises of Brazil (UNISOL Brazil) and Praia Town Hall
Isadora Candian dos Santos,
Between 2009 and 2011, this trilateral cooperation project (involving Brazil, São Tomé and Príncipe and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries - CPLP) sought to contribute to the socioeconomic development of São Tomé and Príncipe by generating employment and income in the craft segment. With a focus on the creation of high quality handmade products inspired by the local culture and natural features of the small African archipelago, the project resulted in the creation of the Uê Tela ('look at the land') cooperative, bringing together trained artisans and apprentices within the scope of the project.
The generation of jobs and income and social inclusion, especially of young people and women, are important challenges for the socioeconomic development of São Tomé and Príncipe. Similar to other small island developing states, São Tomé and Príncipe has a fragile, limited and little diversified economy; currently, more than 90% of investment expenditure in the country comes from Official Development Assistance. The largely informal tertiary sector accounts for approximately 60% of GDP and employs 60% of the active population (the public sector being the main employer in the country). At the same time, unemployment, with a rate of 14%, affects mainly women and young people (more than 60% of the population is under 25 years old). About 50% of the population live below the poverty line and around 15% live in extreme poverty.
On the other hand, it was identified that, in addition to suffering from its low added value and lack of professionalism, the production of San Francisco handicrafts did not show a particular differentiation from what has traditionally been done on the African continent, and lacked connections to the consumer markets external.
The main objectives of the project were to provide training and technical improvement for the creation and development of artisan products representative of the country's cultural identity. Targeting consolidated artisans and apprentices (mainly young and female), the project sought to provide them with new sources of income, through the reinvigoration of artisanal production for domestic consumption and exports.
With the involvement of Brazilian and Santonian designers and artisans, the project encompassed three phases:
(1) the training of artisans and apprentices in the production of handicrafts, focusing on the areas of embroidery, plant dyeing, paper, carpentry, sculpture and sewing. This stage emphasized the technical quality and originality of the pieces produced, emphasizing the use of raw materials and local motifs in the design of the products. It also included the organization of groups of artisans (also trained in social entrepreneurship), taking into account their vocations;
(2) training in the complementary axes of management, marketing, communication and environmental preservation. This stage also included the acquisition of machines and equipment for the training workshops (as well as the training of technicians for their maintenance and repair) and the training of local instructors in the various techniques developed, which later assumed the role of multipliers; and
(3) the elaboration of promotional material and dissemination activities, mainly focused on the foreign market.
The concrete results of the initiative include:
- the training of about 150 artisans and apprentices from all over the country in the production of competitive handicrafts and cultural roots;
- the creation of a shared management structure involving workshop leaders, local coordinators, general design coordination and style coordination;
- the preparation of a manual of procedures related to the complementary axes of the project, supporting the quality of production and the consolidation of the initiative;
- the formation of the Uê Tela cooperative by the trained artisans, to continue the project and ensure its sustainability. Installed at the Institute of Youth (in the capital, São Tomé), the cooperative had technical support to start its activities and currently works autonomously;
- the launching of two collections of handicraft products (including decoration objects, furniture, paper articles made from banana trunks, dyed cotton fabrics using bark, clothing and fashion accessories): "Fédu cu Món" by hand ') and' Modo Fenón '(' our way of doing '), published through bilingual catalogs (in Portuguese and English); and
- the establishment of distribution and marketing channels: a social store in São Tomé and Príncipe, as well as sales abroad (some of the products are marketed in Brazil).
The artisanal activity fostered by the project has already become the main means of subsistence for most cooperative artisans (especially women). When it was approved by the CPLP in 2011, the initiative was a pilot project that, depending on its results, could be extended to other Lusophone countries. Thus, Angola and Cape Verde have already expressed interest in replicating the South-South cooperation experience in the field of artisanal production.
Supported by: Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC), CPLP and Government of São Tomé and Príncipe
On the Brazilian side: Instituto Mazal
On the santomense side: Youth Institute (Ministry of Youth and Sport)
Associate, Instituto Mazal
The Network of National Institutes of Public Health of the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (RINSP-CPLP) was formally constituted in 2011 in Bissau to strengthen the institutes of national health (INS) as structuring entities of the public health systems of its member states, in terms of both its response capacity and the proposal of strategic solutions. Anchored in the CPLP, the network has its executive secretariat by the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz / Brazilian Ministry of Health) and follows a structural cooperation approach among developing countries that prioritizes the use of each country's endogenous capabilities and resources (as opposed to unidirectional transfer of knowledge and technologies). Thus, concrete interventions for generating knowledge are promoted at the same time as the dialogue between the partners involved, in order to allow local agents to take the lead in the health sector processes of each country and to formulate their own agendas independently. development in this area.
National health institutes, often derived from former national public health laboratories, are instances of research, training, monitoring, evaluation, and evidence generation with a view to improving public health policies (which generally have a more permanent character than health authorities). Thus the creation and / or consolidation of these institutes in African countries is essential for the strengthening of their national health systems, especially considering that they have the roles of managing the resources allocated to public health and support the formulation of policies in this sector . The challenge is therefore the sound training of African INS, particularly with regard to its scope of action and the development of available human skills. NIs are in fact strategic-technical bodies considered to be the main way of overcoming long-term public health problems in a structural way.
Following an integrated approach to public health issues, RINSP-CPLP is one of the networks of structuring institutions defined in CPLP's "Strategic Plan for Cooperation in Health". This network aims to promote technical-scientific cooperation among its members in order to: (1) improve the quality of scientific knowledge about the social determinants of health; (2) technically support the ministries for epidemiological, sanitary and environmental surveillance; and (3) improve public health policies based on scientific knowledge. To that end, cooperation in the RINSP-CPLP has focused on the training of human resources in the biomedical and public health areas, as well as organizational strengthening and institutional development. Activities carried out in these areas include: strategic planning workshops, advisory and benchmarking visits, postgraduate courses, in-service training, and polytechnic training in health. The implementation of INS in CPLP Member States that do not yet have them is one of the network's priority areas for action.
As part of its initiatives, RINSP-CPLP has promoted in Mozambique the revision of the strategic plan of the INS, support for the construction of the new institutional building, master's degrees in health sciences (already in its fourth edition) and in systems (with the support of the International Development Research Center - IDRC), the reformulation of the INS scientific journal and the implementation of the National Health Observatory, among others. He also held a master's degree in public health for the training of professionals from the School of Public Health of Angola and has contributed to the reorganization of technical schools of health in this country. With the support of RINSP-CPLP, Guinea-Bissau's INASA was created in 2010 (in particular by supporting the formulation and evaluation of its strategic plan and the improvement of reference laboratories in the country) and Cape Verde's INSP in 2014 (after missions to the country of Fiocruz and the Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine of Portugal, and a Cape Verdean mission to the INS of Peru and Fiocruz, which served as reference for the African institution). In turn, the recently created INSP of Cape Verde will be part of a mission from Fiocruz to São Tomé and Príncipe to support the creation of the INS of this country.
RINSP-CPLP also carries out actions related to the raising of funds from international entities to leverage the development of the INS of its members. Because of its repercussions on the visibility of the African INS, the network enables the articulation of external financing sources to the CPLP, for example the International Association of National Institutes of Health (IANPHI) and IDRC. The network also encourages the articulation of African INS with similar agencies in order to carry out joint research and training initiatives.
In general, the NIs of the network's African countries have gained greater strategic and scientific importance from their respective ministries of health. Thus, in recognition of the development verified in the INS of Mozambique, in 2016 it received missions from Malawi and Sierra Leone interested in knowing its organization.
Supported by: CPLP, Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC), World Bank, IANPHI, ministries of health in Brazil and participating countries of the RINSP-CPLP
Implementing agency: Fiocruz / Ministry of Health of Brazil
Executive Secretary of RINSP-CPLP,
Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz / Ministry of Health)
The Solidarity Literacy project supported São Tomé and Príncipe's efforts to reduce illiteracy and expand educational opportunities for youth and adults, helping to formulate public policies and programs for initial literacy, and to develop instructional materials appropriate to the needs and to the local context. The initiative was based on the successful experience of the NGO AlfaSol in Brazil (where 5.6 million students have been served since 1997), now recognized internationally (in particular by UNESCO).
In 2001, about 30% of the inhabitants of São Tomé and Príncipe did not know how to read and write. Despite the negative individual and collective repercussions of illiteracy (particularly in terms of social, economic and political exclusion), the country did not have an official policy and a public offering of education for young people and adults (individuals of the same age or more than 15 years).
The Solidarity Literacy project was implemented between 2001 and 2011 in São Tomé and Príncipe, starting from an initial demand from the Ministry of Education of São Tomé and Príncipe, with the objective of promoting the education of young people and adults. Through the reduction of illiteracy rates and the increase in global schooling, the aim was ultimately to contribute to the expansion of the personal autonomy of the young and adult population, by integrating mathematical skills and reading and writing from Portuguese to everyday life people and communities.
An initial diagnosis of the educational context of the young and adult population was conducted by the technical teams Santana and AlfaSol, based on official indicators, survey of pre-existing actions and analysis of the socioeconomic and cultural environment of the localities. Based on this diagnosis, the technical teams prepared an initial work proposal highlighting themes and priority actions for the construction of the process of continuous schooling of young people and adults.
Held in close cooperation between AlfaSol and the São Francisco Technical Coordination, the project was articulated around the following main areas of activity:
- support for the formulation of public policies, legislation, pilot projects and programs for initial literacy and youth and adult education;
- selection and initial and ongoing training of Sant'Emencian coordinators and literacy teachers;
- Identification in Brazil of specialists from higher education institutions, research centers and NGOs, to prepare an initial proposal for a training process and to act as trainers;
- mobilization and enrollment of literacy students throughout São Tomé and Príncipe;
- improvement of the knowledge of the management team of the local programs, covering on-site training and technical internships in Brazil;
- seminars for the exchange of experiences and discussions on educational policy and the expansion of educational opportunities for young people and adults;
- support for the development of courses and didactic materials appropriate to the reality of the country;
- training in the methodology of articulation of partnerships and fundraising, mobilization of society, and monitoring and evaluation of educational processes.
Between 2001 and 2011, the project trained 110 teachers and served more than 21,000 illiterate or under-educated young people and adults, and contributed to the reduction of the illiteracy rate in the country (now estimated at 9%). On average, 60% of those attending the initial literacy course continue their schooling process enrolled in public schools in the country, especially the younger ones. In order to ensure the continuity of long-term actions, the project supported the São Toméan government in the creation of a specific body within the Ministry of Education: the Directorate of Technical and Vocational Education and the Education of Youth and Adults.
In addition to São Tomé and Príncipe, the Solidarity Literacy project has already been replicated in other Portuguese-speaking countries (Cape Verde, Mozambique and Timor-Leste), as well as in a Spanish-speaking country (Guatemala).
Supported by: Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC)
Implementation agency: AlfaSol
Maristela Miranda Barbara,
While Sierra Leone has made considerable progress in the consolidation of peace, democracy and its socio-economic development, the country's media sector remains confronted to low levels of professionalism and challenges to provide independent content. To scale up its ongoing media reform, Sierra Leone's most important media actors have established cooperation with Ghana as a pioneer on media freedom on the African continent. Collaboration has allowed to develop a national curriculum for media and journalism studies at Sierra Leone's main university and to set up a network of ECOWAS reporters.
Sierra Leone has made considerable progress since the end of the civil war in 2002, consolidating peace, democracy and improving development indicators amid rising rates of economic growth. Its media sector consists of a wide range of public and private entities and is considered as relatively independent. Nevertheless, ranked on place 85 (out of 180) in the World Press Freedom Index 2017, journalists face significant challenges because of a highly competitive market, where financing depends on the allegiance to political and economic interests. Many journalists have only limited training and cannot ensure an adequate level of ethics and professionalism. Especially during the recent Ebola crisis journalists were increasingly confronted to defamation charges.
Sierra Leone's Media Reform Coordinating group (MCRG), which brings together senior representatives from the country's most important media actors, was established in 2014 and is in charge of facilitating the reform of the media landscape to ensure increased independence, higher ethics and professionalism based on the right of freedom of speech. Supported by UNDP and UNESCO, MCRG overviews and implements an ambitious programme to strengthen responsible journalism. Amongst many objectives, this includes the passing of a media bill and the enhanced recognition of freedom of the press in the National Constitution. It also implements a National Media Development Strategy, provides trainings to journalists, enhances alternative media systems, such as community radio networks, and is working on the establishment of a Centre of Excellence within the Mass Communication Department of Sierra Leone's main
university ("Fourah Bay College"). This is in line with the country's Media Development Strategy which was developed and launched on (World Press Freedom Day) 3rd May 2014. To scale up this reform, representatives have established cooperation with Ghana which is ranked No.26 in the World Press Freedom Index 2017 (before countries such as France and the USA). Ghana has a stable legal framework to ensure independent and free exercise of journalism. Its journalism is characterized by a high degree of professionalism and operates without significant restrictions. The development in the media landscape has been a result of the widening of Ghana’s democratic landscape since 1993. The media has benefitted from strong civil society movements and organizations that have taken advantage of the democratic space to champion the call for the liberalization of the airwaves which has led to media pluralism. Again, the media has collaborated effectively with state and non-state actors to discharge its role as the fourth estate of the realm. For instance, in the 2016 General Election, the National Media Commission the regulatory agency for the media in Ghana partnered with the National Peace Council to sensitize the public on the need for peaceful elections. Similarly, some media houses are working with anti-corruption agencies to tackle the menace of corruption as well as the illegal small-scale mining known in Ghana as ‘Galamsey’. In May 2014 a media delegation from Sierra Leone visited Ghana and interacted with main media agencies such as Ghana Broadcasting Corporation, Ghana Institute of Journalism, African College of Communication, UNESCO, Ghana Network of Community Radio Network and West Africa Media. Exchanges touched upon Ghana's experience to establish a free and high-quality media sector and how the sector contributes to democratic dialogue, accountability, peace and development through its high standards of professional ethics. Delegates agreed to establish joint activities/projects and to enhance the collaboration between the Mass Communication Department of Fourah Bay College and the University of Ghana, especially to ensure the upgrade into a full-fledged Centre of Excellence. Therefore, the Mass communication curriculum at Fourah Bay College was reviewed and the development of over 100 undergraduate media/journalism courses, three track Masters degree
programmes, and a doctoral programme in Mass Communication (under the leadership of a resident professor) was launched. PhD research projects are pursued in the areas of Strategic Media Management, Media and Gender, Media and Democratic Governance, Social Media, African Communication Systems. Furthermore, an association of Communication, Journalism and Media Educator (ACJEM SL) has been established to support to roll out the reviewed curriculum as a national curriculum for media and journalism studies in Sierra Leone. The exchange also led to the signature of a memorandum of understanding (MoU) between the Sierra Leone Media Reform Coordination Group and the Media Foundation for West Africa (MFWA), based in Accra, Ghana. In the meantime, the two partners have conducted a survey on media coverage and reporting on ECOWAS in Sierra Leone. Following the training of a cross section of journalists in Sierra Leone the ECOWAS Reporters Network in Sierra Leone was established.
Supported by: UNDP
Implemented by: Media Reform Coordinating group (MRCG