The Solidarity Literacy project supported São Tomé and Príncipe's efforts to reduce illiteracy and expand educational opportunities for youth and adults, helping to formulate public policies and programs for initial literacy, and to develop instructional materials appropriate to the needs and to the local context. The initiative was based on the successful experience of the NGO AlfaSol in Brazil (where 5.6 million students have been served since 1997), now recognized internationally (in particular by UNESCO).
In 2001, about 30% of the inhabitants of São Tomé and Príncipe did not know how to read and write. Despite the negative individual and collective repercussions of illiteracy (particularly in terms of social, economic and political exclusion), the country did not have an official policy and a public offering of education for young people and adults (individuals of the same age or more than 15 years).
The Solidarity Literacy project was implemented between 2001 and 2011 in São Tomé and Príncipe, starting from an initial demand from the Ministry of Education of São Tomé and Príncipe, with the objective of promoting the education of young people and adults. Through the reduction of illiteracy rates and the increase in global schooling, the aim was ultimately to contribute to the expansion of the personal autonomy of the young and adult population, by integrating mathematical skills and reading and writing from Portuguese to everyday life people and communities.
An initial diagnosis of the educational context of the young and adult population was conducted by the technical teams Santana and AlfaSol, based on official indicators, survey of pre-existing actions and analysis of the socioeconomic and cultural environment of the localities. Based on this diagnosis, the technical teams prepared an initial work proposal highlighting themes and priority actions for the construction of the process of continuous schooling of young people and adults.
Held in close cooperation between AlfaSol and the São Francisco Technical Coordination, the project was articulated around the following main areas of activity:
- support for the formulation of public policies, legislation, pilot projects and programs for initial literacy and youth and adult education;
- selection and initial and ongoing training of Sant'Emencian coordinators and literacy teachers;
- Identification in Brazil of specialists from higher education institutions, research centers and NGOs, to prepare an initial proposal for a training process and to act as trainers;
- mobilization and enrollment of literacy students throughout São Tomé and Príncipe;
- improvement of the knowledge of the management team of the local programs, covering on-site training and technical internships in Brazil;
- seminars for the exchange of experiences and discussions on educational policy and the expansion of educational opportunities for young people and adults;
- support for the development of courses and didactic materials appropriate to the reality of the country;
- training in the methodology of articulation of partnerships and fundraising, mobilization of society, and monitoring and evaluation of educational processes.
Between 2001 and 2011, the project trained 110 teachers and served more than 21,000 illiterate or under-educated young people and adults, and contributed to the reduction of the illiteracy rate in the country (now estimated at 9%). On average, 60% of those attending the initial literacy course continue their schooling process enrolled in public schools in the country, especially the younger ones. In order to ensure the continuity of long-term actions, the project supported the São Toméan government in the creation of a specific body within the Ministry of Education: the Directorate of Technical and Vocational Education and the Education of Youth and Adults.
In addition to São Tomé and Príncipe, the Solidarity Literacy project has already been replicated in other Portuguese-speaking countries (Cape Verde, Mozambique and Timor-Leste), as well as in a Spanish-speaking country (Guatemala).
Supported by: Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC)
Implementation agency: AlfaSol
Maristela Miranda Barbara,
While Sierra Leone has made considerable progress in the consolidation of peace, democracy and its socio-economic development, the country's media sector remains confronted to low levels of professionalism and challenges to provide independent content. To scale up its ongoing media reform, Sierra Leone's most important media actors have established cooperation with Ghana as a pioneer on media freedom on the African continent. Collaboration has allowed to develop a national curriculum for media and journalism studies at Sierra Leone's main university and to set up a network of ECOWAS reporters.
Sierra Leone has made considerable progress since the end of the civil war in 2002, consolidating peace, democracy and improving development indicators amid rising rates of economic growth. Its media sector consists of a wide range of public and private entities and is considered as relatively independent. Nevertheless, ranked on place 85 (out of 180) in the World Press Freedom Index 2017, journalists face significant challenges because of a highly competitive market, where financing depends on the allegiance to political and economic interests. Many journalists have only limited training and cannot ensure an adequate level of ethics and professionalism. Especially during the recent Ebola crisis journalists were increasingly confronted to defamation charges.
Sierra Leone's Media Reform Coordinating group (MCRG), which brings together senior representatives from the country's most important media actors, was established in 2014 and is in charge of facilitating the reform of the media landscape to ensure increased independence, higher ethics and professionalism based on the right of freedom of speech. Supported by UNDP and UNESCO, MCRG overviews and implements an ambitious programme to strengthen responsible journalism. Amongst many objectives, this includes the passing of a media bill and the enhanced recognition of freedom of the press in the National Constitution. It also implements a National Media Development Strategy, provides trainings to journalists, enhances alternative media systems, such as community radio networks, and is working on the establishment of a Centre of Excellence within the Mass Communication Department of Sierra Leone's main
university ("Fourah Bay College"). This is in line with the country's Media Development Strategy which was developed and launched on (World Press Freedom Day) 3rd May 2014. To scale up this reform, representatives have established cooperation with Ghana which is ranked No.26 in the World Press Freedom Index 2017 (before countries such as France and the USA). Ghana has a stable legal framework to ensure independent and free exercise of journalism. Its journalism is characterized by a high degree of professionalism and operates without significant restrictions. The development in the media landscape has been a result of the widening of Ghana’s democratic landscape since 1993. The media has benefitted from strong civil society movements and organizations that have taken advantage of the democratic space to champion the call for the liberalization of the airwaves which has led to media pluralism. Again, the media has collaborated effectively with state and non-state actors to discharge its role as the fourth estate of the realm. For instance, in the 2016 General Election, the National Media Commission the regulatory agency for the media in Ghana partnered with the National Peace Council to sensitize the public on the need for peaceful elections. Similarly, some media houses are working with anti-corruption agencies to tackle the menace of corruption as well as the illegal small-scale mining known in Ghana as ‘Galamsey’. In May 2014 a media delegation from Sierra Leone visited Ghana and interacted with main media agencies such as Ghana Broadcasting Corporation, Ghana Institute of Journalism, African College of Communication, UNESCO, Ghana Network of Community Radio Network and West Africa Media. Exchanges touched upon Ghana's experience to establish a free and high-quality media sector and how the sector contributes to democratic dialogue, accountability, peace and development through its high standards of professional ethics. Delegates agreed to establish joint activities/projects and to enhance the collaboration between the Mass Communication Department of Fourah Bay College and the University of Ghana, especially to ensure the upgrade into a full-fledged Centre of Excellence. Therefore, the Mass communication curriculum at Fourah Bay College was reviewed and the development of over 100 undergraduate media/journalism courses, three track Masters degree
programmes, and a doctoral programme in Mass Communication (under the leadership of a resident professor) was launched. PhD research projects are pursued in the areas of Strategic Media Management, Media and Gender, Media and Democratic Governance, Social Media, African Communication Systems. Furthermore, an association of Communication, Journalism and Media Educator (ACJEM SL) has been established to support to roll out the reviewed curriculum as a national curriculum for media and journalism studies in Sierra Leone. The exchange also led to the signature of a memorandum of understanding (MoU) between the Sierra Leone Media Reform Coordination Group and the Media Foundation for West Africa (MFWA), based in Accra, Ghana. In the meantime, the two partners have conducted a survey on media coverage and reporting on ECOWAS in Sierra Leone. Following the training of a cross section of journalists in Sierra Leone the ECOWAS Reporters Network in Sierra Leone was established.
Supported by: UNDP
Implemented by: Media Reform Coordinating group (MRCG
Ethiopia's economy is undergoing significant tranformation with positive overal growth rates over the past decade ( between 8% - 13%), but faces challenges to scale up productivity and industrialization. The Government puts a major emphasis on export-oriented industries and the industrial sector to allow for a broad based growth that attracts foreign direct investments and addresses the countries's massive unemployment problem. To bring national capacities for enterprise development in the industrial sector to scale, improve industrial planning and ensure the development of policy frameworks that incentivize export, expertise from the rapidly growing Industrial Sector of Asian countries is of major importance.
Ethiopia's economy is undergoing significant tranformation with positive overall growth rates over the past decade ( between 8% - 13%). The country places a particular emphasis on promoting its agricultural and export led industrialization. which is targeted to account for 18% of GDP by 2025. As envisaged by the Growth and Transformation Plan II, the development of the industrial sector should allow for a broad based growth that attracts foreign direct investments and become a lever for poverty eradication by adressing the countries's massive unemployment problem, generating income and adequate savings. The potential to unleash export-led industrialisation of the already widely
existing textile and leather manufacturing, is promising, but requires a strategic transformation and systematization of incentives. Currently, Ethiopia's exports are widely dominated by primary commodities (Approximately 90% of all merchandise exports; UNCTAD LDC 2016). The share of the industrial sector in GDP oscillated around 12% between 2006 - 2016 and will need to be scaled up massively if the targed is to be reached. Currently, the sector is characterized by low levels of technical and technological capabilities and lacks competititiveness in the quality and standards of it s products. Institutional support will be critical to develop research and product development as well as productivity and management skills in the sector.
To strengthen national capacities for enterprise development in the industrial sector in line with the countries' Growth and Transformation Plan, the Ministry of Industry, supported by UNDP, has set up a multiyear capacity building programme that focuses on i) the review of policies and regulatory capacities in industrial development, ii) improving the competitiveness of Ethiopian manufacturing and service industries through enhanced productivity, value chain analyisis and cluster development, and iii) enhancing the skills, knowledge and technical capacity of private sector support giving institutions and Small-/Medium enterprises. The ministries' policy review draws inspiration from successfull examples of other regions. As such, a study on manufacturing export perfomance in 2015 provides a synopsis review of existing export incentives with a particular focus on policy settings of industrial oriented countries in Asia and specific lessons learned shared by the Government of India. It exposes export promotion programmes and lessons learned with regards to interventions that can stimulate the exports of foreign and domestic investors. Based on this review, Ethiopia was able to develop an easily accessible and implementable standard input-output coefficient (SIOC) system on standard input-output coefficient of Ethiopian export products for the beneficiaries of the export promotion schemes and implementing organizations, instead of the existing self-declared input-output coefficient which is cumbersome and time consuming. The system has enabled the exporter to get the raw material/inputs or components required in producing exportable products at the international price and exempts the capital goods needed for the investment from duties and taxes. The development of the system has removed the previous self declared information submitted by the exporter which was exposed to misuse of materials and causes loss of revenue for the government and unfair competition between citizens. The system is developed for six export product categories: leather and leather products, textile and garments, horticulture, agro-processing and food, chemical pharmaceuticals and plastics and metal & engineering products. The aquired knowledge was applied to pre-launch a trial phase of Ethiopia's information system in the leather and textile sector.
Supported by: UNDP, Indian government representation in Ethiopia (Indian Embassy
Implemented by: Ministry of Industry
The Ethiopian federal system is still in its infant stage. The systems and institutions are fragile. One of the key challenges is the absence or weakness of formal mechanisms and systems for intergovernmental relations (IGR), i.e., the horizontal and vertical relations among the different tiers of government. As a result there has been imbalance between the center and states. To further consolidate the federal system, the House of the Federation and the Ministry of Federal and Pastoralist Development Affairs have initiated the process of strengthening systems and mechanisms of a formal IGR system. As part of this initiative, senior experts and policy makers from federal and regional institutions took part in a 10-day experience sharing visit to India which allowed to capture experiences and lessons learnt as inputs to the policymaking process on intergovernmental relations.
Ethiopia (Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia - FDRE), a country with a rich history of diverse societies and cultures, introduced a federal form of government in 1994 following decades of prolonged war and highly centrist government traditions. The notion behind the federal system is to address the quest for self-rule by the country’s nations, nationalities and peoples and to attain sustainable peace and development. Nine regional states and two city administrations constitute the federal units. The Constitution grants legislative, executive and judicial powers to both levels [Art. 50(2)]. Powers are divided between the federal government on the one hand and nine regional states and two charter city administrations. These interdependent government arrangements, the division of powers and unique features of the federation are crucial to harmonize development policies, foster good governance and brotherly relations among the diverse communities. Although there has been significant progress over the years, Ethiopia’s federal system faces multifaceted challenges in particular through the weak Intergovernmental Relations (IGR), which are perhaps the least developed and least understood (or most misunderstood) dimension of federalism in Ethiopia. Critical for the evolution of federalism in the foreseeable future, key issues in relation to IGR in Ethiopia are: * The system of IGR in Ethiopia is poorly developed and mostly managed through informal relations including (ruling) party channels. Except for purposes of dispute resolution related to border changes between the regional states and the exercise of concurrent tax powers by both levels, neither the constitution nor a policy framework provides IGR’s overall vision, objectives, guiding principles, frameworks and procedures. * Since 2005 the Ministry of Federal Affairs is assigned to serve as a center of good federal-state relations (Proclamation No. 471/2005), but is limited to to the management of the executive branches of the federal government. The ministry has no full authority to facilitate and manage the overall relations (be it vertical or horizontal relations across government structures) that arise due to the extensive areas of interdependence. Reorganization of the executive organs and establishment of a formal institution that oversees the overall system remains difficult. More understanding on the benefits and structure and mandate of an IGR system is needed.. * The House of Federation, also responsible for building good relationships and vertical fiscal relations between federal government and states, has so far not developed effective mechanisms and systems of IGR. * Need for institutionalizing IGR is increasingly growing and is currently resolved through the establishment of sector-specific fora that have been formed through practice between senior officials and bureaucrats. These fora are not part of a harmonized policy framework, often work in silos and codify their own MoU. The regional states do not have structures that are exclusively concerned with intergovernmental relations.
Although in most federal systems the requirement of intergovernmental co-operation is rather implicit than explicit, general policy expressions of the mechanism and systems of intergovernmental relations have always proven useful. Inspired by the growing need to institutionalize and strengthen formal IGR, the House of the Federation and the Ministry of Federal and Pastoralist Development Affairs of the FDRE, with the financial and technical support from UNDP, have initiated the process of developing a formal IGR that would help further consolidate the federal system. The current efforts involve deliberations with stakeholders on the conceptual and practical issues related to federalism and IGR, in an attempt to document lessons and formulate policy and institutional frameworks for Ethiopia. This includes learning from the experiences of other federations on the theory of practice of federalism and intergovernmental relations. Accordingly, the Government of Ethiopia has organized an experience sharing mission to India in December 2016. The mission was organized with the objective to obtain relevant information and learn from India on policy and practices of federalism and management of intergovernmental relations in view of adapting and applying them to the Ethiopian context. Ethiopia's federal system shares many similarities with that of India. They are both multicutural federations with huge cultural and linguistic diversities. India being an established federation, it was particularly interesting for Ethiopia to learn how India managed the diversity and the interaction between the center and states.
Supported by: UNDP
Implemented by: House of Federation (Ethiopia)
Corruption and patronage have been major obstacles to human and economic development in The Gambia. Benefiting from the lessons learned of Rwanda, which had started from similarly endemic levels of corruption less than 15 years ago, the Government of The Gambia is is scaling up its measures to improve service delivery, effectively tackle corruption problems and realize the necessary institutional reforms to increase accountability, access to information and rule of law.
Corruption and patronage have been major obstacles to human and economic development in The Gambia. The country is ranked 45 out of 176 countries in the Transparency International Corruptions Perception Index, with an overall decline from 34 points to 26 between 2012 and 2016. In terms of the Mo Ibrahim Index on African Governance, the country has equally shown deterioration in all areas, especially in terms of safety and rule of law (ranking 33 out of 54 African countries in 2015) where important decline was namely due to deterioration of accountability mechanisms. An Anti-Corruption Act, providing for the set up of a permanent Anti-corruption Commission was set up in 2012, but has not been able to turn around this negative trend. This is in line with the AU Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption to address corruption in the public and private sectors which has been signed by The Gambia and 36 other African countries.
To benefit from the experience of an African pioneer in the fight on Anti-Corruption, a delegation from Gambia led by the Minister of Justice conducted a study tour to Rwanda in October 2015. Rwanda has adopted a zero tolerance policy on corruption and a large number of institutional reforms since 2004, including the establishment of a national Ombudsman office, which place the country on rank 50 of the Transparency International Corruption Index in 2016. (down from rank 102 in 2008). The office of the Ombudsman reports to the President of the Republic and has extended powers to investigate, prosecute, suspend temporarily suspects of corruption, recover assets, requests any document, testimonies, etc. as well as judgement execution (bailiff). The Gambian delegation met with Justice Sector Institutions, in particular the Ministry of Justice, the
National Public Prosecution Authority, the Rwanda National Police, the National Unity and Reconciliation Commission and the Office of the Ombudsman. Rwandan officials shared their experience on legal and policy frameworks for anti-corruption and how they are implemented by the different institutions (police, judiciary, public audits of government expenditure, etc.) and the institutionalization of anticorruption measures within every government sector. Rwanda’s anti-corruption measures run across all aspects of the public service and have no boundaries. While annual auditing reports holds government accountable for its expenditures, the National Commussion for Human rights has the power of a judicial police and plays an important role in combating corruption through education and sensitization. Exchanges covered a wide range of issues from lessons learned in the set-up of an Anti-Corruption Commission in both countries to other institutional reform that were conducted in Rwanda. The Gambian delegation took great interest in the institutional and legal frameworks that have been set up by Rwanda to improve its legal possibilities to encourage citizens to report and immediately prosecute cases of corruption. Following the Gambia's democratic transition in December 2016, the Ministry of Justice and UNODC have convened a stakeholder workshop in August 2017, which made recommendations to ensure the Gambia’s legal framework on anti-corruption conform to international standards. A revised and strengthened Bill is being finalized by Ministry of Justice. The new government is scaling up its measures to improve service delivery, effectively tackle corruption problems and realize the institutional reforms necessary in the area of accountability, access to information and rule of law.
Supported by: UNDP
Implemented by: Ministry of Justice
With endemic unemployment in many African countries and the informal sector being one of the biggest employers across the region, entrepreneurship and the creation of small and medium-sized enterprises is recognized as a major driving force for pan-african development. Ghana's EMPRETEC programme has started off as a public-private partnership project of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Barclays Bank Ghana Limited and the Government of Ghana in order to build skills of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial and functional management competencies needed for growth. Today the company is entirely self-financing, and serves as a role model for other countries in the region who want to develop their advisory services around entrepreneurship and enterprise development.
Entrepreneurship and the creation of small and medium-sized enterprises is recognized as a major driving force for Panafrican development. As African countries are enhancing their capacity to finance their own development, they increasingly rely on domestic revenues and private consumption in local markets. Both factors have been growing exponentially in many countries over the past years. Nevertheless, decent jobs have remained at a very low level. With endemic unemployment rates in many countries, the informal sector remains the biggest employer across the region (estimated on average at 80% for Sub-Saharan Africa).
To foster entrepreneurship and enterprise development Ghana has joined the global EMPRETEC programme, a network of technological entrepreneurship pioneered in Latin America, since 1990. Building on this experience, The Gambia has carried out its own entrepreneurship and enterprise
development project between 2014 - 2017. Effort to consolidate gains and institutionalization for sustainability continue during current CPD 2017-2021. EMPRETEC Ghana, considered as a best practice model for enterprise development, has developed into a leading entrepreneurship and enterprise development agency, strongly committed to the development of a healthy private sector, with specific emphasis on Micro, Small and Medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs). Starting off as a public-private partnership project of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Barclays Bank Ghana Limited and the Government of Ghana its initial focus was on building skills of entrepreneurs by providing training to improve the entrepreneurial and functional management competencies needed for growth. The programme has since been developed to include financial services along with a comprehensive range of business advisory and consultancy services and was registered as a company limited by guarantee in Ghana in 19941. The Ghanaian experience has served as a role model for other countries in the region. As such, EMPRETEC Ghana supported the establishment of EMPRETEC The Gambia, sharing its best practices with a delegation from the Gambia during a knowledge exchange and appraisal mission in May 2014, which was supported by UNDP. EMPRETEC-Ghana provided technical inputs in helping The Gambia finalize and sign a new project on “Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development” which was successfully signed with the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Employment in 2014. The new integrated entrepreneurship and enterprise development project which aims at the support of employment creation, most particularly for women and youth. More specifically it aims at: i) Building and strengthen institutional capacities to implement entrepreneurship and enterprise development programmes; ii) Fostering the emergence and development of a sustainable productive and competitive private sector in The Gambia; and iii) Creating a platform to enhance stakeholder dialogue and advocacy for MSME development. By the end of the project in 2017, the terminal evaluation indicated: * 58 entrepreneurial workshops completed as compared to 50 planned; 1980 entrepreneurs trained in EMPRETEC Model out of a projected 1070; 300 farmers trained out of a projected 270; 3 Training of Trainers sessions held out of a projected 7; 10 Refresher courses held for Business Advisers out of a projected 6; 14 national trainers trained out of a projected 15, of which 12 have completed the required training and have been certified by UNCTAD; 125 Business Advisers were trained out of a projected 70; and 900 entrepreneurs and farmers advised out of a projected 700. Enhanced the job creation capacity of 1070 MSMEs; and * Through these activities contribute to generating at least 3,210 new jobs locally.
Supported by: UNDP, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
Implemented by: Ministry of Trade, Industry and Employment/Gambia Investment and Export Promotion Agency - The Gambia
Liberia has achieved great progress towards its social and economic development goals over the past 15 years. Nevertheless, its democratic transition process is not adequately reflected in the national Constitution. Attempts to reform the 1986 Constitution have not led to public consensus and approval through the necessary quota. The latest reform process, launched in 2012, aims at addressing bottlenecks in the reform process through a nation-wide outreach and consultation campaign, amongst others inspired by other African countries such as Ghana and Kenya.
Liberia has recorded impressive strides in human development since its transition to peace and democratic governance at the outset of 21st century. Its first peaceful transition between democratically elected governments has taken place in 2017. Nevertheless, a reform of the country's 1986 constitution has not been part of the overall development process and specific proposals for a review of the Constitution have been multiplying. In a 2011 referendum proposals did not cast the necessary approval of 2/3 of the voters. Since 2012, a Constitutional Review Committee appointed by H.E. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, President of Liberia between 2005 and 2017, aimed at addressing the challenges of a number of outdated fundamental principles and institutional structures based on preliminary nationwide consultations.
The Government of Liberia has made constitutional reform its priority and is working with UNDP to strengthen national capacities in the implementation of a transparent, impartial, inclusive, participatory and creditable constitution making process. In this framework, Liberian officials benefited directly from the experiences of Kenya and Ghana who have undergone similar processes in recent years. Ghana's first democratically established Constitutional Reform Process was set up in 2010. In line with its Constitution of Kenya Review Act (2008), Kenya's constitutional reform was adopted by referendum in 2010. Both countries held extensive public consultations on key issues throughout their territory. Between 2014 and 2016 a variety of interactions and
two direct visits took place between delegations from the Constitutional Review Committees (CRCs) and other key players involved in the reform process of the three countries. The exchanges enhanced the capacity of the various institutions participating in these study tours to afford exposure, forge partnerships, draw lessons learned and put them into practice in Liberia. Since their return for example, the members of Liberia's CRC have spearheaded a public consultation exercise countrywide, collecting views of citizens. More than 56,000 suggestions were collected through public consultations reaching 10,950 Liberians in 73 districts and the diaspora as well as through other opportunities for contribution (radio call-in, toll free call-in, visits to the CRC head offices). Main suggestions, such as the reduction of electoral tenures and the enhancement of decentralization, that transpired from a majority of the recommendations were compiled into a set of proposals submitted to the President. After approval by the President they were submitted to Parliament. In November 2016 the House of Representatives adopted 7 out of 25 proposals which are yet to be approved by the House of the Legislature before being submitted to a public referendum. Exchanges with Ghana also allowed to integrate a particular focus on client-oriented policing and the strengthening of Liberia's National Police force. In 2014 and 2015 seventeen police officers (13 male and 4 female) were trained in Ghana for 8 weeks.
Supported by: UNDP
Liberia's centralized governance system has challenged popular participation and local development initiatives, especially in the provision of public goods and services. Aimed at "bringing government closer to the people" and ensuring greater participation in their own development process as well as an equitable distribution of the nation's resources, the Government has launched its National Policy on Decentralization and Local Governance in 2012. Building on best practices shared by the Indian Kerala Institute of local administration, county service centres are in charge of implementing the decentralization policy at the local level. in coordination with their respective line ministries.
Liberia has recorded encouraging strides in human development since its transition to peace and democratic governance. Nevertheless, the centralized governance system has challenged popular participation and local development initiatives, especially in the provision of public goods and services. The recent 2014/2015 Ebola pandemic was only one very flagrant example of how the weakness of the health system was further underscored through the highly centralized system.
Achieving greater decentralization of power, authority, functions and responsibilities is a major pillar of the Government of Liberia's vast reform programme. Aimed at "bringing government closer to the people" and ensuring greater participation in their own development process as well as an equitable distribution of the nation's resources, the Government has launched its National Policy on Decentralization and Local Governance in 2012. The policy foresees a revision of administrative institutions and restructuring of local governance and public administration system. An important element of the framework for implementing this policy is the establishment of county services centres. County service centres are in charge of implementing the decentralization policy at the local level. in coordination with their respective line ministries. The service centres are based on valuable examples from the decentralization process in India. They were designed and rolled out following a study visit of the
Liberian Ministry of Internal Affairs in 2009 to India The delegation visited the Kerala Institute of local administration in India which has a long-standing history of decentralization programmes. Right after its independence, it launched a large number of development projects at the local level and expanded national services for rural development. Community participation and mobilisation is an important element of its development scheme.
Supported by: UNDP, Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA), United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Implemented by: Ministry of Internal Affairs
Malawi's Growth and Development Strategies III lays out ambitious development trajectories to address the country's development challenges within a restricted resource envelope. The delivery of development targets is therefore all the more contingent on a strong and public service at all levels – policy, institutional, individual. As government will be rolling out the implementation of the MGDS III, the public service is the main driver for the formulation and implementation of the country’s development strategy and the sustainable development goals. The proposed laws and policies will foster an effective and efficient public sector which leads to the achievement of SDG goal number 16 which promotes peaceful and inclusive societies and effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels. To address challenges in slow outcomes of several public sector reforms over the past decades, the Government of Malawi established a Public Sector Reforms Management
Unit within the Office of the President and cabinet to scale up delivery of the reform. A particular focus was brought to replicating successful examples from Kenya and Singapore on the establishment of the Malawi School of Government and performance contracting and local service delivery.
While Malawi has made made important progress on several of the Millennium Development Goals over the past decades, poverty and inequality remain high, especially in rural areas where 50% of the population is still poor (Source: World Bank). Most opportunities for work are in subsistence farming, an area highly affected by droughts and climate related shocks over the past years. The Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS III) 2017-2022, aims to accelerate transition to a productive, competitive and resilient nation. It is anchored on five key priority areas: (a) Agriculture, Water Development and Climate Change; (b) Education and Skills Development; (c) Energy, Industry and Tourism Development; (d) Transport and ICT Infrastructure and; (e) Health and Population. Peace, good governance and effective decentralization are key enablers for achieving sustainable and inclusive development. The 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were integrated into the MGDS III as a result of UNDP’s advocacy and technical support. Given that Malawi achieved only 4 of the eight MDGs, the transition to the SDGs will require enhanced coordination and integration both at planning and implementation levels. A National Planning Commission created in 2017 is responsible for the oversight of MGDS implementation. The delivery of development targets is therefore all the more contingent on a strong and public service at all levels –
policy, institutional, individual. The Government of Malawi has carried out several public sector reforms before the launch of its Malawi Growth and Development Strategy II (2012 -2016). These reforms had mainly focused on improving skills and competencies in leadership, human resource planning and management, but only yielded mixed results and were reviewed with a stronger emphasis on ethics and accountability in 2013. Amongst other indicators, the MGDS III benchmarks its success on the continued implementation of public sector reforms through a “business unusual” approach in key reform areas. The support to the government of Malawi will translate into putting into effect policies, laws and systems that transforms the sector as per the policies’ goal to formulate “a results oriented and high performing public service by 2022 that facilitates positive transformation of the economy and the country’s modernization”.
Through its five years Public Sector Capacity Development Project (PCSD) launched in 2012, and carried out in collaboration with UNDP, UNV and UNDESA, the Government of Malawi has shifted the focus towards „results based“ programme goals and critical performance improvement policies. PCSD seeks to strengthen the capacity of the public service through: i) Review and implementation of policies, rules and regulations that support efficient public service delivery; ii) Increasing leadership/management skills, competencies and ethical values to drive the national development agenda; iii) Strengthening human resource planning and management capacities in the different MDAs within the public service; and iv) Promoting innovative and integrated application of ICT within public service. Following a large financial mismanagement scandal which erupted in 2013, an exchange on lessons learned around anti-corruption with authorities from Botswana led the government to request a forensic audit of the Malawi
Treasury and involved line ministries, which was financially supported by DFID UK. In 2014, the Government resolved to scale up the delivery of the reforms and established a public service reforms commission. Upon their appointment a delegation from the Commission. the Public Sector Reforms Management Unit and UNDP visited Kenya and Singapore on a benchmarking tour to learn from their best practices in public sector reform, and received two missions from Singapore to backstop the reform implementation and strengthen strategic foresight. The overall recommendations and findings of these South-South exchanges was summarized in the report “Looking into the future: Making Malawi work: Transforming Malawi's Public Service“ and can be found here. A particular focus was given to performance contracting in the public sector, an area where Kenya has gained important experience since its introduction in 2004. Kenya's practical experience on the institutionalization of performance contracting in Government systems and its contribution to effective service delivery allowed Malawian officials to design new Performance Contracting Tools and improve the management of their sector working groups. A comprehensive methodology for performance contracting was developed by the Malawian Cabinet Performance Enforcement Division and adopted in a circular issued by the Chief Secretary in 2015. Building on the lessons learnt from the benchmarking tour to Kenya, the commission recommended the set up of one stop service delivery centres at local level, using the infrastructures of existing post offices. Supported by the World Bank, three centres in the Lilongwe, Mangochi and Mzimba districts have been finalized in 2017. Several follow up exchanges, including the visit of a delegation from the Parliament of Malawi, were organized with the Kenya School of Governance, a centre of excellence on Public service integrity in order to establish a long term relationship that would allow government to set up a School of Government in Malawi. The objective was to transform, innovate and reposition the the Malawi Institute of Management and Staff Development Institute, which are mandated to build the capacity of public servants at all levels, therefore creating a more responsive public sector and higher quality basic services. In line with a roadmap coming out of these exchanges, a bill to set up this school will be submitted to legislators in February 2018. In addition, the efforts of the past years have allowed to resolve the confusion of roles between Principal Secretaries and Ministries due to conflicting mandates between the Public Service Act (1994) and the Constitution. The elaboration of a Public Sector Reforms Policy and of a Public Service Management Policy have transformational effects on the management of the Public Service.
Suported by: UNDP, DFID and World Bank
Implemented by: Office of the President and Cabinet, Public Sector Reforms Management Unit
Over the past decades, many African countries have been facing volatile situations and a variety of threats to human security and development. Setting up effective institutions as well as continuous peace- and stability building is necessary to provide alternative conflict resolution mechanisms and tackle root causes over the long term. The Ghanaian experience around peace building and its National Peace Council has been a pioneer on the continent. Its example serves as an inspiration to several other countries who are facing imminent situations of conflict.
Over the past decades many African countries have been facing volatile situations and a variety of threats to human security and development. More than half (35) of all countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are currently exposed to situations of conflict or fragility towards violence in its different dimensions. Ethnic origins, religion and social inequalities are only some of the causes that trigger violent outbreaks. They are also a reminder that effective institutions as well as continuous peace- and stability building is necessary to provide alternative conflict resolution mechanisms and tackle root causes over the long term. In Ghana for instance, when conflict arises, security agencies (peace and military) are only interested in ending hostilities and later punishing perpetrators, which creates more adversities. Without an opportunity to listen and address the concerns of all parties in conflict, the root causes of conflict are rarely addressed. Agencies of state such as the Police, are often seen as appendages of government, which makes their intervention often difficult. Therefore, there is no opportunity to listen and address the concerns of all parties in conflict. The National and Regional Peace Councils (N/RPCs), established to prevent and mediate in conflict, provide this platform for all parties irrespective of the public perception and prejudices against them to have their say at the negotiating table in order to find an amicable resolution to the conflict. The N/RPCs also serve as a neutral arbiter in conflict resolution. Thanks to the eminent members that make up its Governing board, it is more trusted than institutions of the state.
While Ghana has been a pioneer of peace and stability over the past decades, the country faces many threats to human security through its geographical situation and within some of the Northern regions. Although they never threatened to assume a national dimension, numerous chieftaincy, ethnic and resource based conflicts continue to occur. To address such challenges Ghana has set up a solid peace architecture at the national, regional and district levels. Since 2011, the National Peace Council replaced the Northern Region Peace Advisory Committee (NORPAC) which was set up after the 2002 Dagbon Chieftaincy conflict (following the murder of the overlord of Dagbon and some thirty of his elders) as a mediation and conflict resolution mechanism to foster trust among the factions and restore confidence as well as enhance relationships. NORPAC was composed of representatives of Christian and Muslim bodies, Traditional Chiefs, Women and Youth groups and Security agencies. Following the success of NORPAC, the National and Regional Peace Councils (N/RPCs) have been set up to facilitate and develop mechanisms for conflict prevention, management, resolution and to build sustainable peace in the country. They promote cooperative problem solving to conflicts and, by institutionalizing the processes of response to conflict, produce outcomes that lead to conflict transformation, social, political and religious reconciliation and transformative dialogues. In this regard therefore, the NPC has worked with key stakeholders to prevent violence in the 2008, 2012 and 2016 general elections. It has also intervened successfully in conflicts such as the Tafo Conflict, the long running Bawku Chieftaincy conflict, by supporting the factions to form an inter-ethnic peace
committee, where the people can chart their path to the management and resolution of the conflict among others. Indeed, the work of the N/RPCs are very much respected by the Ghanaian and have constantly received high levels of trust during Afro barometer surveys among others. The NPC serves as example for many other African countries and has willingly shared its experience with Governments in the region. Several visits, for example a study visit of the Ivorian ambassador accompanied by a group of students in 2015, an exchange with officials from South Sudan and longer term exchanges are taking place with countries in the region. The visit of representatives of the Ethiopian Government, an inter-religious council and religious leaders, in the framework of a programme to strengthen national capacities for conflict prevention, allowed to incorporate important elements from the study tour in a programme that supported Ethiopia's election in 2015 and the overall national peace architecture.
Supported by: UNDP
Implemented by: National Peace Council (NPC)- Ghana
To enhance the design and delivery capacity of relevant institutions to mainstream climate change adaptation and sustainable development across programmes, the Government of Mauritius has set up an ambitious programme which does not only implement soft and hard beach protection measures and an early warning system in the highly threatened coastal zone, but also puts a strong emphasis on the strengthening of local engineering capacities. The partnership with a leading Indian University on Coastal engineering has allowed the University of Mauritius to set up its own MsC course, allowing local engineers to develop adequate technical solutions for each of the unique coastal sites.
The Republic of Mauritius' (ROM) stunning coastlines, with its white sand, transparent water and coral reefs, have allowed the small island to develop a vibrant tourism industry that accounts for a substantive part of its economy and formal employment. In spite of its remarkable economic transformation over the past 50 years, as a Small Island Developing State (SIDS), the country (including Mauritius, Rodrigues, Agalega , and various small islets) is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, especially in the coastal zone, where a convergence of accelerating sea level rise and increasing frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones (with more intense rainfall events, stronger winds and higher waves due to the degradation of coral reefs) has a high risk to result in considerable economic loss, humanitarian stresses, and environmental degradation. The visible and measurable effects of climate change in the coastal zone of ROM have become more apparent over the last ten years, reflecting increases in the rate of negative changes and an increase in the number of vulnerable sites. Sea level rise (measured in Port Louis) has averaged 3.8 mm/year over the last five years, compared to an average of 2.1 mm/year over the last 22 years. Local families are highly dependent on coastal livelihoods, such as employment in the hotel sector and fishery, but, due to the extremely high percentage of private land holding, cannot move to alternative sites. They remain the first ones to be exposed to adverse climate conditions and to suffer from long term impact of climate change. There is a lack of technical capacity in ROM to convert climate variability risk management into practical technical interventions appropriate for each vulnerable site. Each coastal site is unique in terms of driving factors, rate of change, and range of technical options. High level coastal engineering skills for proper assessment of each site and to design appropriate cost-effective interventions are crucially needed.
To protect the highly exposed communities living in the coastal areas from these adverse effects, the Government of Mauritius, with the technical support of UNDP, is carrying out an adaptation programme, which includes the implementation of soft and hard beach protection measures, the establishment of an Early Warning System for Storm and Tidal Surge, construction of a refuge centre to provide a safe haven for the coastal communities in cases of storm surges, other natural calamities and the improvement of the institutional framework for coastal management and training. A major focus is also placed on the development of engineering capacities that are adapted to the challenging context. In view of the lack of adequate capacities to address the new phenomena and unique conditions at each coastal site, a strong emphasis was put on the training and capacity building of local engineers, which also allowed to ensure sustainability of the project. As at 2017, 500 officials from the Government/Private Sector had been trained in the field of Coastal Engineering and Climate Change Economics.
In charge of carrying out this component, the University of Mauritius has established a partnership with the Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), a leading multi-disciplinary facility specialized in research and teaching programmes in the protection, conservation and management of marine ecosystems. Short Courses on "Coastal Engineering" were imparted to approximately 50 local engineers from the public/private sector and university students. The University of Mauritius and IITM are therefore planning for a long-term collaboration in the design and implementation of other short courses on coastal engineering and joint supervision of PhD students. A follow up course on "Coastal Adaptation Structures (soft measures) -A case study of Mon Choisy" was taught by three professors from IITM in August 2014 and two postgraduate courses "MSc Coastal Engineering" and MSc "Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction" have been mounted in collaboration with the University of Mauritius. The capacity development component is part of an overall larger program of coastal engineering courses. It has also allowed to produce three “Handbooks on Coastal Adaptation” packaged as training modules for coastal communities, relevant Government agencies, and private sector stakeholders.
Supported by: UNDP and Adaptation Fund
Implemented by: Ministry of Social Security, National Solidarity and Environment and Sustainable Development
Namibia's National Planning Commission is charged with Macro Economic Planning of the country, but has limited practical exposure to advanced macroeconomic tools to estimate poverty levels at national, regional and constituency levels. Substantive exchanges with the Stellenbosch University’s Social Policy Centre and the Southern Africa Social Policy Research Insight allowed to further build the Macro economic research and analysis capacity of the Commission’s secretariat. Trainings focused on the practicable application of appropriate techniques for analysing and communicating socio-economic issues. Overall, department has gained hands-on experience in the production of empirically sound and policy relevant socio-economic research, based on the country’s data and is applying these tools for thorough analysis on topics such as Gender Pay Gaps, Enrolments in Early Childhood Development, Youth Unemployment and National Human Development.
In spite of Namibia’s steady progress in improving its socio-economic development over the past years and its classification as an upper middle-income country, the country is still facing wide level of inequalities. Poverty incidence varies greatly between the regions and between rural and urban areas of Namibia. Although no analyses have been undertaken to ascertain regional differences, it is plausible to assume wide variations in the incidence of poverty within the regions. Namibia’s National Planning Commission (NPC), operating within the office of the President, is in charge of planning, prioritizing and directing national development that includes economic planning through effective coordination, monitoring and evaluation. It spearheads the identification of socio-economic development priorities, formulates short-term, medium-term and long-term national development plans, and develops monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. While it was plausible to assume wide variations in the incidence of poverty within the regions, the commission had not undertaken any analysis that could provide detailed data on these regional differences and its staff was lacking the tools to estimate poverty levels at regional and constitutional level.
This was carried out in collaboration with the Stellenbosch University’s Social Policy Centre and the Southern Africa Social Policy Research Insight, and in line with the 2014-2018 Partnership Agreement between the Government of Republic of Namibia and the United Nations. The National Planning Commission (NPC) strengthened the capacities of its national development planners to conduct analysis of the Namibia Index of multiple deprivation and poverty mapping. In 2014/2015 a delegation of the Stellenbosch University and the Southern Africa Social Policy Research Insight, conducted a specialized training of 14 national development advisers from the NPC on the Development of Indexes of Multiple Deprivation. This allowed technical staff at the National Planning Commission of Namibia (NPC) to conduct studies that estimated poverty levels within the regions, specifically at constituency levels, and develop trends analysis based on the 2001 and 2011 Census as well as the 2003/2004 and 2009/2010 Namibia Households Income and Expenditure Data (NHIES). The officials now have skills on how to present the data analysed on maps using StatPlanet. Further, they will also be able to investigate aspects of non-money metric poverty as a prelude to the money-metric work that lies ahead in the country. This will allow them to advise policy makers both at national and regional government levels on how to institutionalize resources allocation that is informed by baseline tools on poverty within different areas. With subsequent training using Stata, NPC Secretariat is now able to provide policy guidance on developmental planning and priority settings to Government using analytical work. The National Planning Commission is still using the tools and methods for analysis and to date, three policy briefs have been produced on the following topics: i) Inside the Gender Pay Gap: What Explains Disparities in Gender Pay In Namibia? ii) Increasing Enrolments in Early Childhood Development (ECD): How Far Have We Come? iii) Namibia’s Untapped Resource: Analysing Youth Unemployment. It is likely that Namibia (NPC) will continue to collaborate with the Stellenbosch University. The technical skills enhanced and capacities improved through this partnership will be applied and utilised in the preparation of the next NHDR.
Supported by: UNDP
Implemented by: Macroeconomic Division, National Planning Commission (NPC), Namibia, contact person Mr Sylvester Mbangu, Chief National Development Advisor