This initiative aims to mobilize savings from Senegalese living in Senegal and from the diaspora communities, helping them to invest in local productive initiatives.
Despite Senegal’s 6.7% GDP growth rate in 2017, nearly half of the country’s 15.4 million inhabitants live in poverty, with a concentration in rural areas (66% of poor, compared to 23% in Dakar). Although many poverty-reduction initiatives have been implemented over the years, economic growth is not leading to sufficient reduction of poverty. The decentralization process has not yet been able to trigger the desired local development in rural areas, and the lack of resources in and for secondary cities undermines development prospects. Moreover, due to poverty, migration to other countries is significant. Remittances thus play an important role in supporting families, but they also tend to widen economic disparities in local communities and motivate more migration as a result of social comparisons. At the same time, a large part of private savings is being invested in non-productive sectors (real estate, in particular).
The objective of this initiative is to develop Investment Clubs (ICs), targeting both Senegalese living in the country and those from the diaspora communities in West Africa, Libya, Mauritania, Europe and the United States, to help them engage in productive investments. By building financial and legal structures, providing financial education to the rising middle class and migrants, as well as offering technical assistance, this UNCDF initiative will strengthen the contributions of the diaspora’s South-South remittances to more inclusive development, by channelling them towards productive and economically viable investments with high social impact in secondary cities and rural areas.
The structuring of the ICs includes the establishment of investment funds, which will be supported by a matching grant to boost participants’ willingness to invest, while seeking social change alongside financial returns. The resulting fund is to be allocated in the form of seed capital to catalytic and bankable projects with strong developmental impact. These projects will be prepared and de-risked by UNCDF through the technical assistance of its mechanisms, in particular the Local Finance Initiative. The ICs initiative intends to be a demonstrative experience for the Senegalese middle class and diaspora groups to learn about how their savings can contribute to local economic development. When compared to other similar ongoing private initiatives in Senegal, the advantage of the Investment Clubs is linked to UNCDF’s capacity to source projects geared towards the achievement of the SDGs and to carry out feasibility studies for the selected initiatives until they reach financial sustainability. Indeed, the projects will benefit from UNCDF’s key dual system to asses and monitor their impacts as well as to provide technical assistance and capacity building so that the projects can reach a creditworthiness stage.
Activities already accomplished within this initiative include the elaboration of a market research aimed at identifying the key requirements expected from the ICs and developing the concept, and the definition of an investment strategy. In the long term, it is expected that the programme will impact local development through 20 Investment Clubs created, US$4 million of mobilized funds and 6,000 people educated on financial investment for social development. The initiative also paves the way to many development opportunities for other countries within West Africa, given the common challenge to develop saving habits and promote local-impact investments, and the shared opportunities offered by a rising middle class, the contribution of diaspora communities to a large portion of the GDP and a common economic union, ECOWAS. In a context of intense migration flows within the region, strengthened South-South Cooperation within ECOWAS could enable the scaling-up of the initiative in order to boost the engagement of the diasporas and rising middle-class to save and invest in projects with high local-development impacts.
Provider Country: Senegal
Beneficiary Country: Senegal
Supported by: UNDP
Implementing Agency: UNCDF and UNDP Senegal
Project Status: On-going
Project Period: November 2016 - beginning 2020
The main distributor of medines and medical equipment in Zambia, Medical Stores Limited, required upgrading of its infrastructure in order to improve on the quality and volumes of logistic services it is providing. The support provided by UNDP is aimed at increasing the storage capacity from 7,000m2 to 21,000m2 in Lusaka, improve on the storage and handling systems at MSL and construct four (4) regional warehouses and distribution hubs in four provinces around the country.
MSL is the central factor in the storage and distribution of health commodities for the public sector in Zambia, covering over 2,000 health institutions. As a result of increased provision of health services to the general public the supply volumes handled by MSL have increased dramaticaly over the years and MSL faced serious challenges with the storage space available.
The initiative supported the construction in Lusaka of a new central warehouse for medicines and four regional pharmaceutical warehouses, which meet international quality standards. This initiative significantly enhances capacity of Medical Stores Limited and efficiency to store and distribute medicines, and more broadly assist MSL and the Ministry of Health to improve the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of the pharmaceutical supply management system. This will ultimately benefit the health needs of the Zambian people.
This support to MSL is part of the broader south south cooperation aimed at improving the availability and correct use of good quality medicines for the people of Zambia, Congo and Mozambique.
Provider Country: Government of Zambia
Beneficiary Country: Zambia
Supported by: UNDP, EU, GFTAM, World Bank, Government of Zambia
Implementing agency: UNDP
Project Status: On-going
Project Period: 17 January 2017-31 December 2019
The objective of the programme is to improve urban resilience to promote economic recovery, the basic social services delivery for the poor and vulnerable urban population in Zimbabwe.
Generally, poverty is perceived as a rural phenomenon. However, recent studies have shown that poverty in the urban areas is increasing faster than in the rural areas. Whilst the rural resilience programming has enhanced the rural communities’ resilience capacities, there is a need to also focus attention on urban resilience given the magnitude of the shocks and hazards in urban areas. Zimbabwe has been experiencing economic challenges which include a high unemployment rate of more than 90%, cash liquidity challenges and eroded livelihood options. Unlike the rural population, the urban population relies on formal and non-formal employment for their livelihoods as agriculture is not a sustainable source of livelihoods in urban areas. As a result of the ongoing cash liquidity problems, closing of industry, low foreign investment and low salaries, most households in most cities are highly vulnerable and poor with very limited access to basic social services including safe drinking water and sanitation facilities. About 1.5 million people (2018) were estimated to be food insecure representing 37% of the urban population. Nationally, the majority of households (65%) in urban areas experience a shock/stressor . Zimbabwe has the second largest informal sector in the world (2018), accounting for more than 94% of the country’s employment. The Petty Trade resulting from the informal economy is one of the important sources of income 11% (2018).
Some of the urban poor cannot afford access to electricity and heavily rely on fossil fuels such as wood as their main source of fuel/energy. The infrastructure deficits may further be worsened as result of the environmental challenges in most of the urban areas such as pollution, poor waste management, deforestation and biodiversity loss. Urban areas in the country are also affected by extreme climate like droughts and floods. Prevalence of urban food insecurity rose from 31% in 2016 to 37% in 2018. Under-investment in infrastructure maintenance also contributes to the poor living conditions of urban residents, characterised by significant infrastructure deficits for basic services: water and sanitation (WASH), waste management, transport, health services, and electricity. Environment-related health risks, including cholera and typhoid, are very high, as is evident from regular and recent outbreaks, particularly in the larger urban areas amongst the most vulnerable and under-served. These challenges are exacerbated by climate change. Climate change impacts also result in greater rural-to-urban migration, or urbanisation, with the rate of growth increasing faster than what city governments have the capacity to absorb, overwhelming waste water and sewerage systems. Extreme poverty is concentrated in high density urban areas, and the government often struggles to accommodate the rising population in cities. Migrant populations are congregating in illegal settlements which are more vulnerable to climate change. Migrant women are particularly vulnerable, who may live in make-shift houses in unplanned settlements with inadequate water access and poor sanitation. Inappropriate crop production in wetlands around cities has also affected water supply. Loss of wetlands in Harare, for example, has depleted the water table from 12 meters to 30 meters below ground level. There is therefore a need to commit to more sustainable solutions for the WASH and related social services to withstand the shocks and stresses.
In response to the above UNDP has initiated Urban Resilience programme to generate evidence for building urban resilience in Zimbabwe. The objective of this Programme is to develop urban resilience model in selected local authorities as well as generating evidence and knowledge to strengthen the urban resilience in the country.
The programme adopts one of the approaches to address youth unemployment and well as livelihoods of the most vulnerable groups, which is linking provision of basic social services (including WASH) with generation of employment opportunities: by providing better access to WASH services, developing enterprise opportunities, while at the same time generating jobs in the sector of WASH infrastructure development.
The overall goal of the programme is to improve economic recovery and access to the provision of basic social services of unemployed youths, women, and vulnerable groups in urban areas of Zimbabwe. The Programme approach recognizes the synergistic relationship between a WASH, LED and Basic Social Services Sectors.
The programme focuses on two interrelated components: 1. Basic social services and community infrastructure; 2. Green jobs and social bonds, aiming at employment for the youth that focuses on green technologies to help solve some of the key constraints facing urban populations.
Preliminary consultations led to the formulation of a Preparatory Support Document following the approval of the initiative by the Local Project Appraisal Committee (LPAC) at meeting on the 1 November 2018. An LPAC meeting was attended by UN Agencies, Government, Private Sector, Civil Society and Donors who welcomed and approved the new initiative, given the high levels of urban food insecurity and new outbreaks of Cholera and Typhoid in the targeted areas. Overall the programme would build on previous lessons learned coupled with a strong evidence and knowledge-based component, strong partnerships and a modest resource envelop to leverage other past and future investments. A preparatory support document has been prepared covering the pilot phase that will contribute to the crafting of the medium and long term urban resilience programme. A joint field visit comprising UNICEF, UNDP, and the Ministry representatives was conducted to Gwanda Municipality on 5-7 December 2018 to engage the Local Authority (LA) and identify the needs of the local communities. Consultations in relation to basic social services, employment creation, and private sector partnership were held with Gwanda Municipality and stakeholders to identify areas of collaboration. A field visit resulted in the Gwanda Town Council passing a Resolution in support of the urban resilience programme, paving the way for the implementation of the planned actions.
The programme is also expected to expansion of it to other countries that could be scaled up under South South Cooperation facilities.
Provider Country: UNDP Zimbabwe
Beneficiary Country: Zimbabwe
Supported By: UNDP Country Investment Facility
Implementing Agency: UNDP Zimbabwe, Ministry of Local Government, Public Works and National Housing, Selected local authorities, Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Enterprise Development, Ministry of Women Affairs, Ministry of Youth and Sports, Ministry of Environment, Water and Climate
Project Status: On-going
Project Period: 2018-2019
The initiative brings clean energy and safe water to off-grid marginalized communities by introducing technological solution.
Only 16% (2016) of the population in rural areas in Tanzania have access to electricity. Electricity supply is not reliable. Electricity generation is heavily dependent on hydropower- 42%, natural gas – 45% and liquid fuel 13%. Power cuts are frequent and unpredictable due aged transmission lines. With the exception of the hydro-electric, the other two sources of power generation are expensive. Thus, renewable energy sources provide a viable and sustainable option which is yet to be fully exploited in Tanzania. Tanzania's sunshine hours per year range between 2080 and 3500 with global horizontal radiation of 4-7 kwh per square per day. Tapping into this renewable source of energy will give rural populations numerous possibilities including increasing agricultural productivity, income generation and climate resilience. Women, who shoulder a disproportionate responsibility for household fuel and water collection, food preparation, is the population group most affected by inadequate access to clean energy and safe water supply. Typically, women and children spend over two hours a day collecting water, and up to seven hours in remote rural areas. As it is now, most families in the marginalized rural areas buy kerosene for lighting and incur big cost to pay for treatment of diseases cause by use of unclean and unsafe water.So, there has been need to address some key challenges on accessibility to clean energy and safe water in targeted rural areas.
The main purpose of the project is to bring clean energy and safe water to off-grid marginalized communities by introducing technological solution in Three villages i.e. Mungaa, Makotea & Mtavila in Ikungi districts, Singida region, two villages i.e. Busami & Mwamigingwa in Busega district Simiyu and Three islands i.e. Sozia, Namuguma & Buyanza in Bunda district, Mara region. The areas to be selected do not currently feature in the national plan for electrification. The technology is called 'The Off-Grid Box' (https://www.offgridbox.com), which is a 6x6x6 feet shipping container, equipped with all the hardware needed to produce electricity and clean water. The Off-Grid Box has a warranty of 10 years. The application of this technology helps the communities to access clean energy and safe water for the first time. This is a pilot which could be replicated later in other localities facing similar challenges.A unit of the Off-Grid Box Technology can provide for up to 300 households which may have approximately 1500 people. This makes the project a community transformation initiative, with a long-term impact on the affected communities' livelihood. The Off-Grid Box technology is completely renewable and will be 36% more cost effective than diesel when used to generate electricity in off-grid areas. The electricity produced by one Off-Grid Box unit per year can eliminate the burning of 1.4 tons of diesel fuel (fossil fuel).The project involves the drilling of boreholes to tap underground water, which is additional to harvested rainwater in the relevant communities and ensures the availability of clean and safe water throughout the year.
The project has the potential to attract private sector investment because the technology allows use of mobile payment methods whereby consumers pay for the services provided by using mobile phones. The project also promotes the productive use of energy in agricultural, commercial and mini-industrial activities in rural areas that require electricity services as a direct input to the production of goods or provision of services. These changes reduce rural-urban migration, promote the growth and sustainability of businesses in rural settings.
The project prioritizes women and youth in all services that it directly provides or supports, such as collecting water user fees, security and trainings.
The plan is to continue to develop the Off-grid box and to replicate it to other regions in Tanzania after the completion of the pilot project. Off-Grid Boxes have already been piloted in the South South region, including in Rwanda and South Africa and is expected to spread further in other countries.
Provider Country: UNDP and Rwanda, South Africa
Beneficiary Country: Tanzania
Supported By: UNDP Country Support Facility
Implementing Agency: UNDP Tanzania, Local government Authorities – Ikungi, Busega, and Bunda, Ministry of Energy, Rural Electrification Agency, Private Sector UNCDF
Project Status: On-going
Project Period: 2018-2019
The intervention supports youth and women entrepreneurs creating meaningful progress towards achieving the SDGs through sustainable and smart business solutions. It provides a platform for the development of innovative solutions to address development challenges faced by the country as well as the implementation of SDGs in the areas of Renewable Energy and Waste Management.
In Eswatini (Swaziland), two of the primary barriers to successfully establishing new entrepreneurship start-ups, especially by youth and women, is lack of access to capital as well as lack of guidance and coaching that facilitates knowledge transfer from a more experienced generation to the younger generation. Economic growth has remained very low. The results of the country's sluggish growth are high unemployment (51.6% among the youth), underdeveloped labour markets, poor industrial performance, and low entrepreneurial activity. While the global community is gaining momentous strides on the use of innovative approaches to drive sustainable development and create opportunities for economic growth and employment, the country is challenged with establishing linkages applied innovation practices for poverty alleviation, addressing unemployment, ensuring sustainable livelihoods and improved wellbeing. This is compounded by an ineffective science, technology and innovative investments leading to low innovation capacities, and inadequate infrastructure in general. The country is among the least innovative countries in the SADC Region, with a low technological readiness and industrial competitiveness amongst the countries in the region. Strengthening technical skills, for both young men and women, and developing 'brain gain' approaches are absolute prerequisites for the country given the significant youth population dividend, making up 79% of the country's population.
Renewable energy is a sector that has been prioritised by the government, and significant work has been undertaken to create a conducive legislative and policy environment that would promote interventions that increase the share of renewable energy in the national energy mix. A wide range of research and policy papers have highlighted the high potential of the country in terms of solar power due to high solar radiation coefficients almost uniformly across the country. As the country only produces 16% of its energy domestically, the expansion of the use of solar energy also serves as a strategic diversification of the energy supply and reduces the need for imports of this critical commodity. The promotion of solar energy also fits well with the focus of the government and UNDP on Climate Change related interventions, where there is scope to expand climate change mitigation related interventions by promoting new technology and innovation in this sector. Waste management is in its infancy in the country, with only rudimentary waste collection systems in place. Waste separation is very limited, and the logistics of collection and reprocessing have proven to be a challenge. There is scope for knowledge sharing and exchange of waste management solutions across the globe, which will enhance the country's ability to develop and implement a sustainable domestic system.
Young people today are faced with various challenges and in Eswatini (Swaziland) one of the biggest challenges is unemployment. Despite strengths such as favourable location and climate, good infrastructure, diversified production base and skilled labour force, investment in research, applied technology for development solutions remain low in the country. The country still needs to consider developing employment and entrepreneurship policies to integrate the youth into the labour market.
Lack of readily available credit facilities limits the ability of the integration of innovation solutions progression into mainstream business applications. Although in general relatively well educated, young entrepreneurs and women especially lack access to financial resources. With 63% of the population living below the poverty line this problem is further amplified as most of the potential users of credit having limited to no access to collateral often required for loans.
Lack of information and experience form a barrier to develop and position their business proposals well, with a clearly defined place in the supply chain governing renewable energy and waste management. Private sector, including commercial banks, has indicated an interest to invest in these innovative sectors and in young start-up businesses provided they can position themselves clearly with a clear value-added proposition, e.g. how they add value to the supply chain driving the Eswatini (Swaziland) economy in general and the existing industry. There is low uptake for technology and lower progression of start-ups into matured and applied business solutions. This is exacerbated by the lack of public awareness on available facilities and opportunities which could be enabled through communication and robust advocacy actions for establishment of partnerships and networks.
The SDG Empowerment Fund and the range of services provided under the fund provide a catalytic environment to address a range of development challenges in line with the national priorities, and in areas where there is demonstrable need and interest. By targeting renewable energy and energy efficiency and waste management, the Fund provides critical support to supporting the development of a sector that has demonstrated potential, but that is held back by limited access to knowledge and experience from a business perspective and access to financial resources. By prioritising youth and women, the project aims to contribute to creating employment and income generation for two of the most vulnerable groups in the country. As the Fund does not "just" provide money but also provides coaching and guidance to participants and enhances the chances that the capital provided provides return in investment in terms of economic and social dividend. Entrepreneurs, youth, women and communities can submit proposals in support of renewable energy and waste management solutions to the Fund through a partner commercial bank, Standard Bank Eswatini. UNDP used part of the funds to set up a Loan Guarantee Scheme within Standard Bank to enable the bank to issue collateral free loans for the youth and women enterprises. In addition, Standard Bank increased the value the fund by issuing loans double the guarantee funds available.
UNDP has also partnered with the GOS Royal Science and Technology Park (RSTP)to provide capacity building and business advisory services for candidates qualifying for the loans. RSTP is a public enterprise established as a hub for stimulating the knowledge-based economy.
The Fund is composed of following components:
Results achieved among others include agreement with Standard Bank to double the available funds when issuing loans to the youth and women enterprises.
Providing Country: UNDP Swaziland
Beneficiary Country: (Eswatini) Swaziland
Supported by: UNDP Country Investment Facility
Implementing Agency: UNDP Eswatini, Ministry of Information and Communications Technology (MICT), Royal Science and Technology Park (RSTP), Eswatini Environment Authority (EEA), Innovation Association of Eswatini (IAS)
Project Status: On-going
Project Period: 2018-2019
Contact person: Gugulethu Dlamini,
UNDP Eswatini (Swaziland)
More than half of the health clinics in Namibia have limited access to electricity. UNDP’s Solar for Health initiative, supported under the Country Engagement Facility, is providing solar energy to clinics. Clinics can provide 24/7 health services to the population, reduced electricity bills, and safely store medicines and vaccines. The initiative provides increased access to quality health services for the general population including vulnerable populations especially in rural settings of Namibia through the use of solar energy.
Namibia’s electricity sector faces major challenges. Security of supplies, both nationally and regionally, is not guaranteed, and regional electricity supply capacities have become substantially constrained. Namibia has only 550MW installed capacity of power generation, mainly from Hydro and thermal sources. Only 45% of the population have access to power. Namibian urban households’ electrification is estimated at 70%, whereas for rural households is 19%. These conditions pose challenges that negatively affect the operability of the health system. Modern health services require stable and reliable energy supply. This is even more important for the supply chain of health commodities, where correct temperature conditions are essential for the quality and durability of medicines, diagnostics, equipment and reagents. Over the last several decades, health supply projects have struggled with the issue of securing sustainable energy supply. Many of storage facilities in remote areas are not linked to the national grid and their energy supply can be erratic. Wood, or other biomass such as crop waste, is the dominant fuel for cooking, lighting and heating. This comes at a huge cost to the environment as families continue to cut down trees (resulting in the deforestation of forests) for much-needed fuel.
The government of Namibia has a clear policy to encourage the use of renewable energy sources; however, the use of solar energy in Namibia remains marginal. For too long, energy poverty has prevented access to healthcare for many vulnerable people around Namibia. Most health facilities in Namibia lack reliable access to energy, and significant number of facilities do not have access to electricity at all. Even health facilities with access to electricity face frequent and significant power shortages, interrupting service provisions and hindering service delivery. Traditionally, diesel generators have powered off-grid facilities and served as back-up power sources in grid-connected healthcare facilities. Yet these come with both high fuel cost and unreliable fuel delivery. The reality is that intermittent or unreliable power sources put people’s lives at risk. The most impacted by these are the vulnerable rural poor.
Health clinics, maternity wards, surgery blocks, medical warehouses, and laboratories all rely on electricity to refrigerate medicines, power the lights and operate life-saving medical devices. Without reliable energy sources, medicines and vaccines are stored in poor condition (cold chain), utility bills are high, and hospitals are in debt. Renewable energy solutions such as Solar PV Systems serve as a promising tool in ensuring that rural health facilities have reliable and cost-effective electricity.
As Namibia is geographically located in a sunshine rich region and has some of the highest solar radiation potential in the world, the country is an ideal place to deploy a cost-effective solution for the energy supply in rural areas. The use of solar power can assist the Namibian health system to increase its resilience to the challenges presented by climate change, including extreme weather events that can affect conventional sources of electricity. The deployment of PV systems for health services has been considered by development organizations and governmental agencies worldwide. This includes the ‘Solar for Health’ initiative by the UNDP, which has supported Namibia in providing Solar PV systems to rural health facilities.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Namibia collaborated with Global Fund and Namibia’s Ministry of Health and Social Services on a pilot project under the UNDP global initiative Solar for Health (S4H). S4H is supporting the installation of solar power systems in health centres and clinics in rural areas to reach underserved communities. The goal is to provide healthcare for all, wherever they may be, and to ensure no one is left behind. For example, maternal mortality is higher for women living in rural areas and among poorer communities. The installation of solar panels is helping to ensure that health care workers are better equipped to provide improved health services to reduce complications during and following pregnancy and childbirth. Further, this also addresses the critical negative impacts on human and natural systems such as health, livelihoods, food security, water supply, human security and economic growth.
The pilot project involved the installation of solar energy photo-voltaic (PV) systems in select clinics across Namibia. These systems provide constant and cost-effective access to electricity, assisting vulnerable communities in mitigating climate change and poverty conditions. The pilot is ongoing in terms of upkeep and maintenance which is done through a local solar energy company SolTec and overseen by the installation company GSOL.
The expected results of the initiative include 100% return on investment (ROI) within 2-5 years. The S4H initiative will allow health facilities to save money, which can be reinvested to support other priority health programmes. A scale-up of S4H will transform the country’s health system and contribute to the universal health coverage. It will test and demonstrate a sustainable business model for health sector energy management, enabling the Government and potential private sector partners to increase their investments in reliable energy and promote climate resilient systems for health. The long-term financial benefit would be a reduction in health sector operational costs, with the expected long-term outcome of higher quality supply of medicines in rural health facilities and a reduction in CO2 emissions. This action, although relatively small, if replicated at a global scale will make a larger contribution to avoid the “dangerous 1.5oC warmer earth”. As noted by the IPCC 2018, vulnerable populations are at disproportionately higher risks and impacts on these groups will increase rapidly after the 1.5oC limit is reached. This solution will be especially relevant in SIDS and LDCs, noted to be more vulnerable and higher risks.
This proposal seeks to unlock the up-front capital needed for investments in solar energy for the health sector, and to document the feasibility of different payment for outcome models to ensure sustainability and support scale-up. By exploring the cost effectiveness and development impact of different options, this proposal will serve as a catalyst for new partnerships, including South-South Cooperation initiatives and public-private partnerships where appropriate. The Solar for Health pilot project has already leveraged South-South Cooperation in regard to procurement to initiate the pilot, as procurement was secured in partnership with Zambia, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The major lesson learnt was that joint procurement significantly reduces individual country cost.
The feasibility study will assess financing solutions among the 4 countries in the region to gather sufficient information to justify acceptance, modification or rejection of the proposed Solar for Health financing model for further financing and implementation.
Provider Country: UNDP and Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe
Beneficiary Country: Namibia
Supported by: UNDP Country Investment Facility, Global Fund
Implementing Agency: Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS)
Project Status: On-going
Project Period: 2018-2019
Geraldine Van Wyk
Gender and Governance Focal Point
The project seeks to support the Government of Liberia to design a Performance Management System to improve the overall performance of the civil service with measurable indicators for effective performance monitoring towards improved service delivery, through a combination of performance contracting and active harvesting and analysis of citizen feedback data.
Liberia is slowly transitioning from a prolonged period of conflict and fragility. Following a peaceful political transition, the new government may struggle to fulfill its pro-poor policy agenda and will be particularly challenged to address significant poverty, high unemployment and disadvantaged rural areas. The Government of Liberia is committed to delivering a pro-poor development agenda that outlines ambitious improvements in the living conditions for ordinary Liberians. A centerpiece of the agenda is to improve the provision of quality public services to all citizens including the most vulnerable and marginalized groups of the population. Improved access to quality health care and education, significant infrastructure improvements as well as the establishment of transparent, accountable and effective public institutions have been some of the promises that Liberians' now eagerly are waiting for the government to fulfill. This has necessitated a civil service characterized by effective planning, sound formulation of specific policy objectives within realistic timelines and effective monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to track progress; all within the context of an institutional environment characterized by transparency, accountability and purpose. This is a tall order considering that the civil service regularly is accused of poor responsiveness to citizens' needs. Maladministration, corruption and adherence to archaic rules and excessive red tape, are also frequently attributed to the civil service. A key reason lies with the low remuneration levels that demotivate civil servants to provide quality and timely services. In addition, they often receive insufficiently opportunities for systematic professional growth, and existing performance evaluation systems are often substandard with little to no value attached to the outcome. As a result, the civil service is unable to attract and retain high-quality professionals with required skills, knowledge and experience.
In an effort to improve the performance culture of the Liberian civil service, the Ministry of State for Presidential Affairs with the support of UNDP started to support the design of a performance management system that includes performance contracts for the President to sign with key public officials that have clear indicators and monitoring tools for effective delivery of services. Such a system, widely applied in many South countries such as Sierra Leone, Kenya and many others, seek to ensure the accountability of public officials by having them identify and commit to clearly defined annual targets along with their indicators of success to measure service delivery. It is a strategic approach to management, which equips leaders, managers, employees and other stakeholders at various levels with a set of tools and techniques to regularly plan, continuously monitor, periodically measure and review the performance of the organization in terms of indicators and targets for efficiency, effectiveness and impact.
The initiative has two components:
1. Development of Performance Contracts: As a first step, all ministers appointed by the President sign annual performance contracts with Cabinet Ministers that monitor their performance in delivering agreed targets that contribute towards the achievement of key Government of Liberia development priorities. The indicators in the performance tracking tables, through which government ministers are monitored will reflect system-wide performance of their ministries. The achievement of the targets is dependent on performance by staff at various levels within the ministry from the lowest to the highest graded staff, making performance a shared responsibility. It is important that all members of the team are held accountable for the performance of their ministry. The PDU within the Presidency has the sole responsibility for coordinating performance management and service improvement efforts within ministries and agencies. The PDU takes responsibility in coordinating performance contracting, help in developing the requisite tools such as the guidelines, performance evaluation system, tracking tables, etc, and in generating the required information and data to assist in tracking, monitoring and evaluating performance, ensuring cross-synergies with the appraisal system for the public service.
2. Citizen Feedback System (CFS): With various digital technologies such as e-mail, text messaging, online reporting etc., citizens are able to report anything from teacher absenteeism, damaged roads and improper behavior by civil servants to the CFS. Once the report is filed, and following validation by the PDU team, it is forwarded to the relevant ministry or government agency. The concerned institution then sends a response through the CFS with an SMS notification to the reporting citizen/complainant about the action taken. This whole process is designed to be completed within days. Quarterly progress reports on compiled citizen feedback data is presented to the heads of each ministry and agency. Furthermore, if a public institution fails to respond to a complaint within one month the CFS team reports this to the President's Delivery Unit creating a strong disincentive for non-compliance. A major strength with this initiative is that it provides a speedy, low-cost channel for a citizen to voice their concerns and influence public services through modern technology. This is particularly important in Liberia which suffers from severe infrastructure deficits coupled with a very challenging geographical environment. Moreover, with internet usage and mobile connectivity on the rise, this is a tool that to a very low cost would allow citizens in large parts of Liberia to increasingly have a say in the quality of services and how they can be improved.
Some signature achievements of the initiative include:
A Citizens’ Feedback Mechanism that will improve provision of public services to all Liberians, especially vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, by helping the government compile and analyze essential services data to better understand what kind of services need to be improved in what parts of the country for what kind of individuals (women, men, girls, boys, old, young). The Citizen’s Feedback Mechanism is geared towards improving the overall performance management systems of the Government, combined with compilation and analysis of citizens’ feedback data to improve public services.
Improving access to basic service delivery is key to helping the government through Ministries, Agencies and Commissions (MACS), achieve milestones under its national development agenda and promoting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Citizens’ Feedback Mechanism has a strong potential to help make the voices of the people heard. The initiative will go a long way in helping the government connect to ordinary Liberians on how services are being accessed and utilized and what needs to be improved. The Citizens’ Feedback Mechanism has the potential to play a significant role in realizing the Pro-poor Agenda for Prosperity and Development (PAPD’s) policy goal under Pillar IV, as it directly speaks to building “An inclusive and accountable public sector for shared prosperity and sustainable development, building state institutions and making evidence-based decisions”. At the heart of the Citizens’ Feedback Mechanism is an ICT platform that allows service users to report on their experiences, through simple, fast, and low-cost digital technologies, e.g., Whatsapp, text messaging, e-mails etc. Over time, the Citizens’ Feedback Mechanism will generate large quantities of data on service delivery. A critical success factor is a very positive impact the initiative can generate for citizens in terms of improving service delivery in various sectors- education, healthcare and infrastructure services. Moreover, through a comprehensive analysis of the large quantities of data compiled by the Citizens’ Feedback Mechanism, it is anticipated to play a supporting role with a significant impact in planning, implementation and monitoring of SDG performance nationally as well as sub-nationally.
There is also significant potential for expansion and growth of the initiative under South-South Cooperation. As the initiative scales up, there will be ample scope for new and strengthened partnerships to be formed with some key international partners. With UNDP support, the Government of Liberia has also been host to a High-Level Forum of Africa Cabinet Secretaries. The Forum provides an unusually newsworthy opportunity and good media platform to demonstrate Liberia’s far-reaching Performance Management reform accomplishments since 2018, through UNDP Country Investment Facility support.
Provider Country: UNDP Liberia
Beneficiary Country: Liberia
Supported by: UNDP Country Investment Facility
Implementing Agency: Ministry of State of Presidential Affairs, Civil Service Agency, Governance Commission
Project Status: On-going
Project Period: 2018-2019
Contact Person: Henrik Lindroth, UNDP Liberia
The initiative facilitates the establishment of the “Waste Recovery Platform” as a one-stop shop solution to connect key stakeholders and provide them with data and technological solutions in order to promote waste recovery in a larger circular economy context.
Waste management has become a development challenge in most developing countries of which Ghana is no exception. Aside the environmental challenges, inefficient waste management in cities and communities exposes people to a myriad of health risks, establishes high risks of environmental degradation and exposed natural resources and water bodies to degradation and reduction in quality.
Ghana's municipalities face significant challenges with solid waste management. It is estimated that over 20,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste is generated daily with an average of 0.67kg per person daily. Accra, being the highest waste generation location in Ghana, has an average generation rate of about 3,000 tonnes of municipal waste per day, out of which at least 300 tonnes are estimated to be plastics.
Nation-wide, less than one-quarter of generated household wastes are collected and disposed at properly engineered landfills; the rest is discarded at open public dumps including water bodies, whiles about 10% are openly burnt, contributing to the high levels of pollution in the Ghanaian environment.A staggering half of that waste is not collected, treated or safely disposed of, and it’s causing a waste crisis.A recent study indicates that environmental pollution costs Ghana an estimated 5-10 percent of its total GDP yearly. However, Ghana can generate GH¢83 billion annually through recycled waste. From the health perspective, inefficient waste management in Ghana's cities and communities exposes people to a myriad of health risks, such as cholera, dysentery and increased occurrence of malaria, and degrades natural environments, especially terrestrial water bodies and marine ecosystems.
One of the challenges identified to be causing Ghana’s waste situation is the under-development of domestic market for waste plastics, which had saturated the country.Others are financial constraints, attitudes and behaviour of people and ineffective enforcement of laws and policies. Local government institutions have the responsibility but not adequate data/information nor the financial resources to effectively plan for and implement sustainable and innovative waste management solutions. Partnerships among key stakeholders along the waste management chain in the country are either weak or non-existent. Various research institutions and private sector operators are increasingly coming up with innovative solutions, but there is no system in place to promote the creation of synergies and collaborations that could bring implementation to scale. The United Nations Development Programme in Ghana launched the ‘Waste’ Recovery Platform with the aim of at addressing these challenges.
The‘Waste’ Recovery Platform is a one-stop shop solution being developed to connect key stakeholders in the waste management value chain to promote waste recovery in a larger circular economy context.
The Initiative has two components: (1) a digital platform to connect stakeholders to facilitate waste recovery, which will be equipped with tools such as a waste map, a compendium of technologies, and mobile application for trading of waste; and (2) a business competition where at least eight innovative projects will be awarded seed capital to demonstrate waste recovery in Ghana. The expected impact includes:
Implementation approach: multi-stakeholder co-designing process. Before implementation began, key institutions in the private sector and government were engaged to get their buy-in on the goals of the Initiative.
Implementation began in June 2018 (https://bit.ly/2G1xN8N) with a meeting that convened all key stakeholders to agree on the approach. A co-designing approach was adopted by the stakeholders after which 5 technical working groups were formed to discuss the design, operation and management of the platform, with guidance from UNDP. Below are the working groups, the scope of their work and progress made in their discussions:
Results achieved so far:
Providing Country: UNDP Ghana
Beneficiary Country: Ghana
Supported by: UNDP (Country Investment Facility)
Implementing Agency: UNDP Ghana; Embassy of Netherlands; CYST; Green Team Embassies; Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation; Ministry of Finance; Ghana Statistical Service; Ministry of Sanitation and Water Resources; Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development; Academic Institutions; NGOs; Private Sector
Project Status: On-going
Project Period: 2018-2019
Paolo Dalla Stella
Programme Specialist (Sustainable Development)
Joel Ayim Darkwah
This initiative aims at the development of an SMS-based Citizen Reporting Mechanism (CRM) and a related data-analysis tool to improve the outreach and assess the impact of public-service delivery to the poor in Mauritius.
Despite significant increases in the share of social security expenditure as a percentage of both total government expenditure (from 21.8% in 2002 to 28.2% in 2017) and GDP (from 5.3% in 2002 to 7.8% in 2017), relative poverty incidence in Mauritius has increased from 7.7% in 2002 to 9.4% in 2017. This situation suggests a possible lack of outreach to the poor using the current service-delivery mechanisms. Gaps and uneven quality in public-service provision, which affect the poorest disproportionately, have been identified as issues to be addressed by the Marshall Plan Against Poverty, a national instrument to deal with the root causes of poverty, launched in 2016. In the same vein, UNDP’s Country Programme Document for 2017-2020 suggests that the advancement of Mauritius from an upper-middle-income to a high-income country will require civil-service reforms to improve performance and increase public-sector effectiveness. This has more significance to the poorest, as described in the Marshall Plan Against Poverty, which states that power dynamics between civil servants and citizens, in some cases, lead to behaviours that stigmatize people coming from pockets of poverty, thus reducing their access to services.
The solution consists in the design and implementation of a Citizen Reporting Mechanism (CRM) that uses mobile-phone technology to report cases of unavailability of and delays in the delivery of public services and programmes, or their uneven quality, particularly regarding the poorest. The very high penetration rate of mobile-phone technology among the poor in Mauritius (more than 93% in the least developed region, according to the last census) makes the use of this mechanism possible. Citizens will be able to report on their experiences with public-service delivery by simply sending an SMS from their mobile phones.
Based on UNICEF’s RapidPro open-source software, the CRM system will include features that will allow the users to receive information on new pro-poor policies, and to share feedback and report issues in the delivery of services. The mechanism will be mainly operated by the Ministry of Social Integration and Economic Empowerment (MSIEE) and its anti-poverty implementing arm, the National Empowerment Foundation. The target audience is eligible applicants registered in the Social Register of Mauritius (SRM) who benefit from social programmes under the Marshall Plan Against Poverty (the SRM is a tool to identify the poor and their socio-economic profile so as to inform policy-makers on the effective demand for pro-poor policies).
An expert in RapidPro deployment was fielded in Mauritius in November 2017 for the design of the CRM and the gathering of stakeholders’ expectations and feedback; the key deliverables of this mission were:
– Prototyping of a first version of the CRM;
– Establishment of the CRM’s user interface, technological backend specifications and standard operating procedures;
– Definition of the terms of reference of the local service provider for the installation, customization, configuration and deployment of RapidPro, and of the local hosting at the Government Online Centre;
– Training of local staff in the utilization of the system through the ‘designing with the user’ approach, using practical cases encountered by staff in their day-to-day work;
– Planning of the system’s deployment, including the estimation of costs for different options; and
– Preparation of an instruction manual for the development and management of the system.
All stakeholders to be involved in the initiative were consulted during the mission: the Prime Minister’s Office; the ministries in charge of ICT, finance, social integration, social security, education, gender, labour; all the concerned ICT institutions, including regulatory bodies and private telecommunications operators; case-management officers working in the field; and the beneficiaries themselves. The findings and recommendations were presented to the Minister and high officials of the MSIEE in November 2017. Following a unanimous positive response regarding the initiative and the allocation of funds in the national budget, the Government of Mauritius is presently identifying the service provider through a bidding exercise.
The lessons learned so far from this ongoing initiative were shared during the UNDP Innovation Facility Hackers Workshop held in November 2017 in Cairo (Egypt). Interests were expressed by UNDP Namibia’s representative, who is working on a similar citizen engagement initiative, to collaborate with Mauritius, leading to a potential South-South Cooperation opportunity.
Beneficiary country: Mauritius
Supported by: UNDP Innovation Facility and Government of Mauritius
Implementing agency: Mauritius’s Ministry of Social Integration and Economic Empowerment (MSIEE) / National Empowerment Foundation (NEF)
National Consultant, Social Register of Mauritius
Experience learning visit on existing early warning system in Kenya
It is expected that as climate change unfolds in Benin, the variability of the frequency and intensity of climate related shocks will increase, thereby necessitating various socio- economic sectors to adapt. Benin’s vulnerability to weather risks was demonstrated in 2010 when Benin suffered more than USD 262m in losses to various socio-economic sectors (e.g., agriculture, commerce, and infrastructure) due to flooding. Similarly, Benin’s coastal region, home to over 3 million inhabitants and one of West and Central Africa’s largest trading markets has been victim to coastal encroachment by as much as 16 meters per year causing major impacts on fishing, port industries and tourism.
In a developing country such as Benin, climate change impacts are exacerbated by limited outreach mechanisms to local levels and a country dependence on subsistence agriculture. For Benin, improving Climate Information (CI) collection and developing an Early Warning System (EWS) is an effective way to build the general population’s weather / climate risk awareness so that communities (particularly rain-fed farmers) can prepare accordingly. However, currently, an early warning system for multi-risk forecasting (e.g. coastal surge and flooding) as well as the capacities to produce and disseminate weather/climate information does not exist in Benin.
This solution consisted of a study mission to Kenya from 24 to 29 March 2014. The Center for Climate Prediction and Application (ICPAC) of the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) based in Kenya has an EWS which covers all East Africa countries. The ICPAC is also in contact with all other national and regional institutions based in Kenya involved in early warning.
The main objective of the mission was to visit and learn about the functioning and the different components of early warning systems in Kenya. Specifically, the mission involved:
The experience acquired has made it possible to strengthen the capacities of the national structures involved in the implementation of the Early Warning System (EWS). A transient EWS for flood management was set up in 2014. The national coverage for climate / weather monitoring has improved by 26% from 30% to 56%. The periodicity of collecting and transmitting station data has improved from a previously (challenging) monthly basis to a daily one.
Supported by: UNDP
Implemented by: Direction Générale de l’Eau, Institut National de l’Eau, Agence Nationale de la Météorologie ou Météo-Bénin, Institut des Recherches Halieutiques et Océanologiques du Bénin (IRHOB)
Centre de prévision climatique et d’applications de l’IGAD, Autorité Intergouvernementale pour le Développement, Bureau sous-régional de l’OMM pour l’Afrique Centrale et Australe, Autorité nationale de gestion de la sécheresse, Centre régional de cartographie des ressources pour le développement, Département de la Météorologie du Kenya et Direction des Ressources en Eau au Ministère de l’Environnement, de l’Eau et des Ressources Naturelles
Cameroon’s capacity to develop and implement strategies for the quality of services provided to users was reinforced through exchanges with Moroccan and Rwandan government officials.
Cameroon faces governance deficits, which have negative impacts in the form of corruption, poor and inefficient public administration, and an unattractive business environment. Improving the quality of service helps restoring the relationship of trust between administrations and users through transparency and access to accurate information, the quality of reception and the possibility of recourse, with the purpose of reducing corruption and improving the business climate.
Strengthen the delegation's knowledge in the field of developing and implementing strategies for the quality of services provided to users, through exchanges with Moroccan and Rwandan government officials.This study trip contributed to the development of human capital (targeted training, reform of HRM provisions, etc.), the development of user information systems, the re-reading, and the re-adaptation of the institutional framework (Constitution, laws, etc.). Through these exchanges, Cameroon has been able to develop an ISO homologous Quality of Service Standard, which is the first in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Cameroon Quality Standard of Service NC 1756: 2017 is currently being implemented in some public services.
Supported by: UNDP
Implemented by: The Ministry of Public Service and Administrative Reform of Cameroon through the Support Program for Quality Improvement of User Services (PAAQSU).
Exchanges of experiences have been promoted between Madagascar, Togo and South Africa with a view to strengthening the capacities and systems of national reconciliation in Madagascar.
Since independence, Madagascar has suffered from recurrent crises (1972, 1991, 2002 and 2009, which have weakened the socio-economic environment of the country and aggravated the extreme poverty of the population.After the political crisis of 2009, Madagascar faces the challenge of national reconciliation, the upgrading of state services and the rebuilding of the social fabric torn apart by months of crises: it is for the country to put in place a sustainable mechanism to break the cycle crisis which is a brake on its development.
Representatives of national institutions in charge of reconciliation participated in exchanges of experiences and good practices in the process of national reconciliation in Togo and South Africa.
The representatives of the Presidency, Primature, National Assembly, Reconciliation Council and Ministry of Communication participated in the exchange missions.
The main purpose of the exchange missions was to inquire about experiences and lessons learned from the South African and Togolese national reconciliation systems in order to feed the reflections on the Malagasy national reconciliation and the capacity building. actors involved in this process.
Reflections are undertaken to enhance the experiences of these two countries, adapting them to the context of Madagascar. Technical support from a South African NGO In transformation Initiative (ITI) which has made several visits to Madagascar in collaboration with the South African Embassy which supports efforts to support a program of national dialogue and reconciliation led by President. These exchanges have also helped to better define the vision and the reconciliation process that the country wants to put in place; This led to the reform of the legal framework that governs this process (Law No. 2016-037 on national reconciliation) and the restructuring of the Council of the Fampihavanana Malagasy (CFM), the entity responsible for conducting reconciliation.
After the inauguration of the new members of the CFM this year, the next challenge for this institution and for Madagascar is to begin the process of reconciliation, especially in a context where the country is preparing to face new elections in 2018.
Supported by: UNDP
Implemented by: UNDP, In Transformation Initiative, South African NGO
Governance Program Officer,