In rural areas in Egypt, there has been a marked shift from the use of agriculture residues and dung cakes for cooking, baking and water heating to the use of kerosene and LPG cylinders (butane gas). About 55% of households use LPG cylinder; about 69% use kerosene and about 17% use agricultural residues.
The recent surveys carried out in 1700 households in rural areas of Assuit Governorate and 1500 households in Fayoum have indicated that in average 2-3 LPG cylinders and 20-25 liters of kerosene is used per month for cooking and water heating in each household. The amount of agricultural residues used is about 50 bundles (about 150 kg) per household each month for cooking and baking.
Solution: Densification (briquetting) is one of the means of combating the environmental problems related to the uncontrolled burning of crop residues. Densification is a physical process whereby materials such as biomass are compacted under high pressure into a uniform shape (i.e. briquettes or pellets). The density of the material increases enormously; from bulk densities of 100-200 kg per m3 to massive densities of around 1.2 kg/l. Densification introduces large benefits for logistics (transport and storage), use of the biomass (e.g. in hearths or fixed bed gasifiers), and hygienisation (seeds and insects are killed in the process). Due to the somewhat lower moisture content in comparison to the raw material, the calorific value may be somewhat higher (16-17 MJ/kg). The main drawback is the energy use of the process (around 100 kWhe/tonne).
Hence, the use of anaerobic digestion, which is the process of microbiological decomposition of (wet) biomass into methane and carbon dioxide (biogas). It takes place in strict absence of oxygen and usually requires a (very) watery environment. Although anaerobic digestion can be used for a range of applications (e.g. wastewater treatment, processing of municipal organic wastes), the most relevant for rural areas is digestion of animal dung. Such digester systems are available for use in households (upward from several heads of livestock), but also for larger communities (dozens of heads of livestock) and farms (hundreds to thousands of heads). The digested effluent is a very suitable (and valuable) fertilizer for agriculture. The gas produced can either be used directly for cooking or water heating or, in larger plants, for electricity generation.
The briquettes can be stored and distributed as a household fuel. Based on order-of magnitude estimates of investments and operational costs, the production costs per tons of briquettes are estimated at 140-160 LE/t.
Goals and objectives: In 2012, the Bioenergy for Sustainable Rural Development Project has been established through the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency – EEAA/ Ministry of Environment, in coordination with the Ministry of Petroleum, the Ministry of Electricity and Energy, the Ministry of International Cooperation and the Ministry of Local Development, with the objective of i) promoting sustainable rural development in Egypt and environmentally sound management of agricultural and solid waste, ii) removing technical, institutional, media, financial and other market barriers of increasing the use of biomass energy, iii) reducing the negative environmental impacts associated with the use of fossil and waste.
Implementation: The project received partial funding from the GEF, in cooperation with the United Nations Development Program and the Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs.
The project supports poor villages at the two levels; individual - for each family and community level - through cooperation with NGOs. Geographically, the project has focused on the villages of Al-Mazaty in Fayoum Governorate and Awlad Elias in Assiut Governorate. As Assuit and Fayoum have the lowest human development index in Egypt and the highest unemployment.
In the first phase, the project built 100 units in Assuit and Fayoum. All units of the 1st stage are fully financed by the project to disseminate the idea and make real and concrete project/ units for the eyes of the farmers to believe and see benefits. They are distributed widely in the two selected villages in the targeted governorates. They fully attracted the beneficiaries and their neighbors as potential beneficiaries. During the installation of the units, a group of engineers and masons are trained in the field are capable to provide the same service to find one of the main factors of the market, namely, the service providers.
In the second phase, the project built 1300 units in all Egyptian governorates. The units are partially financed by the beneficiaries themselves as a second step towards the maturity of market. The beneficiaries are requested to provide his animal waste as well as digging a pit and providing a list of material; bricks, sand and two helpers in unskilled workers. During this phase more than 20 start-up companies were registered after training their engineers and masons to be real entrepreneurs capable to provide the service professionally and meet the market requirements.
Partners: The Global Environment Facility (GEF), the Egyptian Government, UNDP, the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, in coordination with the Ministry of Petroleum, the Ministry of Electricity and Energy, the Ministry of International Cooperation and the Ministry of Local Development.
Mailing Address: South-South Development Academy: 6th Ibn Maysser st., off Mahmoud Azmy st., Zamalek
Tel: +20 2737 5086/7/8/9
Fax: +20 27375084 ext. 127
Solution: Community Eco-paper product is an environmentally friendly technology of making paper using plants refuses by rural communities in Egypt.
Goals and objectives: In Egypt, economically disadvantaged urban and rural dwellers suffer from a severe lack of employment opportunities both in urban and rural areas. While the negative impacts of unemployment weigh heavy on Egyptian society, the country also faces significant environmental problems, some of which are attributable to the disposal of plant waste. Farmers, unable to rid themselves of plant refuse such as rice straw, banana stalks and river flowers, resort to burning these goods, which contributes to the overwhelming problem of pollution. Overall, there has been little effort to reform this practice because village communities lack environmental awareness and knowledge of alternative uses for agricultural refuse. Therefore, the projects of developing papermaking centers are to address, in a creative and integrated way, the issue of unemployment and environmental pollution from agricultural waste.
Implementation: In 2005, El Nafeza (Window) center, an Egyptian non-profit foundation, came up with Community Eco-paper, reviving the traditional of making paper using plants refuses, sun and natural colors.
The process of making papers through the agriculture wastes in El Nafeza:
Finally, the paper left on the wall till it dry, the paper can be left white or colored.
El-Nafeza innovative approach engage people in the development of their communities, introducing creative ways of dealing with the environment and unemployment. This happened through empowering marginalized groups (especially women and disabled young people) through creating untraditional job opportunities in the field of arty handmade paper. Also, through raising the level of environmental awareness about the efficient use of the recycled agricultural refuse through conducting workshops in the communities suffering from agricultural waste issues (such as farmers who burn the rice straw). El Nafeza is considered as the first center in Egypt and the Middle East in training paper makers as a professional job.
Mailing Address: South-South Development Academy: 6th Ibn Maysser st., off Mahmoud Azmy st., Zamalek
Tel: (02) 2737 5086/7/8/9
Fax: (02) 27375084
In Egypt, health services are delivered by a multitude of public service providers (the ministry of Health (MOH), ministries of Higher Education, Defense, the Interior, etc.), the Health Insurance Organization (HIO), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and an expanding network of private practitioners and medical facilities. Even though presence of multiple providers could imply competitive services, in reality, there is very limited or no performance assessment mechanisms or quality assurance. All proposed or attempted solutions for healthcare quality monitor were highly dependent on governments and authorities.
Solution: Eghospitals.com is a website that serves as a community monitor of health service provision in Egypt.
Goals and objectives: The aim of this project is to promote social accountability, informed decision-making and active citizenship, since all assessments are carried out by trained community members. To create sustainability community- based interventions for healthcare Shamseya for innovative community healthcare solutions, an Egyptian company established in 2012, developed Eghospitals.com.
Implementation: Included the following steps:
Through this portal detailed information on service quality in Egyptian hospitals and other health facilities becomes accessible to the public. For each published score, three appraisals are carried out in parallel (by independent) community assessors. Also, website viewers are allowed to enter their personal feedback on the website or request that a specific hospital be assessed, both of which reduces the possibility of bias and encourages citizens to participate in promoting social accountability in the Egyptian context. The criteria, according to which assessments take place, were generated following extensive field research involving medical staff and patients, to ensure that important determinants of health service quality are covered. Finally, a document including the results is validated and approved by all local networks.
Partners: Ashoka Arab World, the world Health Organization (WHO), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Oxfam International – Participatory Eco-Camp on Achieving Universal Health Coverage Locally.
South-South Development Academy: 6th Ibn Maysser st., off Mahmoud Azmy st., Zamalek
Tel: (02) 2737 5086/7/8/9
Fax: (02) 27375084
Solution: Solid Waste Management Improvement Project is a framework to improve the National System of Solid Waste Management in Azerbaijan by way of 5 steps:
Goals and objectives: The Government of Azerbaijan has included waste management as one of the key priorities of the National Sustainable Development Strategy where it has been able to achieve considerable progress in Solid Waste Management, but it appeared that the collection of municipal waste was incomplete. The overall project objective is to improve solid waste management by exploring multi-sector partnership approaches.
Implementation: The solution was initiated in 2009 by the Government of Republic of Azerbaijan in consultations with the United Nations Development Programme. The framework included the following steps:
Replication: After conducting studies in the districts of Baiku, Ismayili and Shekhi, laboratory analyses were conducted in fifty districts across the country. (Not much information on replication)
Partners: Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, Government of Norway
Budget: Approximately USD 900,000 (2009 Figure)
Mr. Chingiz Mammadov, Senior Programme Advisor
Solution: Agriculture is the main source of food supplies in Armenia and forms about 17% of GDP, 52% of the countries population works in agriculture. 8 out of 10 regions in Armenia are prone to hails (medium to intensive). Every hail destroys around 4-5% of the crops and agricultural products, which, annually is estimated to be around 8 million USD in losses. A hail storm in Ararat valley in May 2013 destroyed 3000ha of vineyards and 2000ha of apricot yield in 46 communities with estimated total loss almost 60 million USD.
Goals and Objectives: The project initiated the installation of anti-hail nets as a pilot measure and new culture to protect vine yards.
Implementation: In 2012, in the framework of UNDP DRR Project and in cooperation with Ministry of Emergency Situations, World Vision Armenia and Regional Capacity Building for Climate Risk Management in Europe and CIS project of UNDP Bratislava Regional Centre, a small scale adaptation project was implemented in Tavush community.
Owing to the joint efforts anti hail nets were installed in 4,500 m2 in one of the communities’ private vine yards by serving as protection measure against the hail storms. If for the last 4 years this vineyard was destroyed by hailstorm and only 400 kg of grape was gathered and loses were about 4,800 USD, after installation of hail nets 15.000 kg of grape was harvested from the same territory in 2013.
The ACBA Bank has undertaken the following activities:
The UNDP Armenia provided the following contributions:
Achievements: Investments into anti-hail net systems and their development gave the farmers the opportunity to avoid hail risks and guaranteed high-quality harvest.
Replication: The solution can be of interest for replication in countries prone to hails to reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to climate change.
Partners: ACBA (Credit Agricole Bank), World Vision, CARD, OXFAM
Budget: based purely on grant allocations (40,000USD)
Contact person: Armen Chillingaryan, DRR Programme Coordinator
Phone number:+374 60 530000
Solution: Local level risk reduction is the local component of the overall disaster risk management (DRM) system, which along with regional and national components builds the national DRR system as a whole.
Goals and Objectives: Local Level Risk Management methodology is a full compilation of tools and procedures designed for community based risk informed development. It aimed for:
Implementation: The solution was developed by UNDP and the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Republic of Armenia in cooperation with UNICEF, Armenian Red Cross society and World Vision Armenia and introduced with a special attention to building local level risk reduction culture.
LLRM is a consolidation of key data and conclusions on community specific risks and priority solutions obtained in the result of vulnerability and capacity assessment and planning exercise with indication of possible funding sources and sectors, where these sectors can be accommodated.
The solution was tested in 40 communities by UNDP in 2012-2015 through testing and adaptation of the widely used similar tools and serving as a diagnostic and advisory tool for community risk informed development and mechanism for implementation of the National Strategy on DRR.
Achievements: Nowadays, the LLRM module is a common format used in Armenia approved by DRR National Platform (DRR NP) and applied by all organizations involved in local level risk identification and reduction processes as a standard module and more than 200 communities have been assessed.
LLRM may be further developed, reviewed or amended based in its application peculiarities, further practice in DRR and other fields, relations between the DRR national system development projects and the necessity for coordination. UNDP is working with the MoES to upgrade the methodology to interlink it with SDG and Sendai Framework for DRR and then to provide to the Government for adoption. Further implementation of LLRM will insure the community based risk informed planning and budgeting.
Replication: The solution can be replicated in countries in need to enhance the local disaster risk management system.
Ministry of Emergency Situations of Republic of Armenia, UNICEF, Armenian Red Cross society, World Vision Armenia
$800-1000 (depending on how far and how big the region is)
Contact person: Armen Chillingaryan, DRR Program Coordinator
Phone number:+374 60 530000
Goals and Objectives: During the academic year of 2004/2005 Azerbaijan National Agency for Mine Action (ANAMA) in cooperation with the Ministry of Education of Azerbaijan and UNICEF launched integration of Mine Risk Education (MRE) into school curriculum to spread safe behavior rules and messages among people living in mine and explosive remnants of war (ERW) affected areas, at the same time ensuring safety of development and rehabilitation projects from the threat of explosive devices.
Implementation: MRE activity covers population of 24 districts, including internally displaced people from occupied territories settled in IDP camps and frontier areas and consists of the following elements:
Achievements: Total of teachers attended during 10 years consisted of 1,200 males and 2,435 females. Every year, 55,000 students in secondary schools have MRE classes. Upto now, 1,044,000 students in the secondary schools have been targeted. Analysis of the incidents happened show that study of MRE at schools significantly impacted to decrease the number of mine/ERW incidents among children.
Replication: Based on successful implementation of the solution in Azerbaijan, since 2009, ANAMA has been providing non-military humanitarian assistance to Islamic Republic of Afghanistan through a pilot project on (MRE) on integration of MRE into the program of local schools to achieve spreading of awareness and risk education messages among school children through teachers.
In 2010-2012, in Kabul and Parvan education departments, Afghanistan, AMANA provided support to the Afghani counterparts through:
As a result of the joint efforts, starting from the 2010 academic year, integration of MRE into curricula of schools officially been approved by the Ministry of Education of Afghanistan.
In addition, the Ministry of Education of Afghanistan requested for 40 000 more of books to be send in the coming school year which were translated from Dari into Pashto by the local specialists.
Budget: For replication in Afghanistan: For the first stage of the pilot project approximately USD 25,000; the second stage (including production of books) required USD 170,000.
Partners: Azerbaijani Government (financial support), ANDMA, Department for Mine Clearance (DMC), and Mine Action Coordination Center for Afghanistan (MACCA), Ministry of Education and Parliament of Afghanistan.
Republic of Azerbaijan
Musa Jalalov, MRE Department Manager, Azerbaijan National Agency for Mine Action (ANAMA),
Address: Baku city, PC:AZ:1108
60 Ibrahimpasha Dadashov str.,
Phone:(+99412) 561 95 57; Fax:(+99412) 497 44 27
Mobile: (+99450) 322 10 91
Goals and onjectives: The solution was developed in the framework of public administration reform to change the recruitment system for the civil service.
Implementation: Before establishment of the Civil Service Commission under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan (CSC) in 2006, each state agency used to recruit civil servants through own systems and according to own rules and procedures. There were no job descriptions for any positions, no unified source of information to let applicants get information about vacancies and no opportunity for qualified citizens to have equal access to the civil service through open competition.
The CSC with support of UNDP and GIZ introduced a new unified recruitment system. The new system is based on a few pillars that determine its functionality and sustainability:
Achievements: The establishment of the e-recruitment system contributed to rising public trust in the transparent and fair access to the civil service and in the citizen-oriented public administration.
Replication: The solution also attracted attention from other countries as a model for replication; Delegations from Afghanistan, Turkey and Cambodia paid visits to CSC to familiarize themselves with the system.
Partners: United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and German International Cooperation (GIZ)
Civil Service Commission under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Contact person: Narmin Zeynalova, Head of the International Relations Division
Address: Koroglu Rahimov 874 the block, Baku, Republic of Azerbaijan
Phone: (+994 12) 465-87-93
Solution: Since its inception, ASAN Xidmət has become a state agency most widely applying the volunteer activity. Volunteerism is the activity undertaken by young people at ASAN Xidmət centers aimed at their self-development and enhancing their knowledge.
Goals and objectives: In order to facilitate employment opportunities for and support undergraduate and graduate ASAN volunteers in building their professional careers, ASAN Xidmət launched a website called ASAN Kadr (www.asankadr.az) in March 2015. This portal creates the bridge between young and experienced persons with distinctive work potential and public and private entities.
Implementation: Every young person between 17-25, both undergraduate and graduate, can apply for volunteerism in ASAN Xidmət. Those, who pass the selection process, undergo two-month volunteer work in ASAN Xidmət centers. Volunteers who successfully complete the contractual obligations are awarded a special certificate and reference by the State Agency and this provides an opportunity for their successful transition to the next phase of their professional life. So far more than 7000 young people have successfully undergone a volunteer activity in ASAN Xidmət centers.
Until 13 April 2016, 2227 CVs of ASAN volunteers have been uploaded on the portal. Moreover, 444 public and private entities have registered to the portal. Altogether 5579 job applications and job interviews have taken place through the portal.
Achievements: It is remarkable that so far 556 professionally distinguished young ASAN volunteers have found employment in ASAN Xidmət centers, other state entities, private companies and enterprises with 268 of them through the ASAN Kadr portal. Information on all volunteers, who have found employment, is regularly updated and their testimonials are placed on the portal.
Replication: The solutoijn can be replicated in countries in need to improve the youth employment system.
Budget: Access to and use of the portal by volunteers and entities are free of charge. Maintaining the portal is done by ASAN Xidmət HR Department, and requires minimum financial resources.
Contact person: Mr. Elchin Huseynli
Phone: (+994) 12 444 74 41
Web links: www.vxsida.gov.az, www.asan.gov.az
Solution: The State Agency for Public Service and Social Innovations under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan was established in July 2012 as part of comprehensive reforms in public administration initiated by the President of Azerbaijan. The State Agency works in two parallel directions. The first direction is the management of ASAN Xidmət centres, and the second one is the facilitation (acceleration) of electronization of public services rendered by state bodies.
Goals and objectives: The State Agency is the central body of executive power in Azerbaijan mandated to carry out the mutual integration of databases of state agencies, accelerate the organization of electronic services and improve the management system in this area. As part of its mandate, the State Agency has developed and introduced into service an online payment system called “ASANPay” in January 2015. It is a multi-functional payment system that ensures the electronic delivery of administrative penalty decisions to the citizens and allows them to carry out online payment of fines related with those penalties and court rulings.
Implementation: The ASANPay system’s was designed to offer:
All payments can be done through a web portal (www.asanpay.az) by online bank transfer or through static terminals installed in public places (shopping malls, parking garages, ASAN Xidmət centers, etc.) by cash or a bank card. Both registered and unregistered users can use the system.
Achievements: Through a personal e-cabinet a user can access detailed and comprehensive information on his/her administrative fines and dues, read protocols and decisions, see photo and video footage of violations, realize payments, receive bills of payments, store all transactions. The system guarantees full security to and confidentiality of users’ credentials. Online bank transactions are encrypted and secured through Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, Secure Sockets Layer, Verified by Visa, Secure Code.
Work is underway to include payments for other services, such as utilities, internet, cabel TV, tax and loans, insurance, parking, as well as features like “E-Wallet” and “Internet/Mobile Banking” into the ASANPay system.
Replication: The solution can be replicated interested in digitizing public service delivery.
Contact person: Mr. Elchin Huseynli
Phone: (+994) 12 444 74 41
Solution: “ASAN Məktub” is a project initiatiated and implemented by the volunteers of ASAN Xidmət.
Goals and objectives: The overall purpose of the project is to promote the sense of social responsibility and social solidarity in the public by providing a conduit for responsible, benevolent and compassionate people and organizations willing to help realize wishes of children in orphanages or from low-income families, as well as children with disabilities or health impairments.
The project aims to bring joy to children that fall under the category of vulnerable groups. It also inculcates social responsibility senses under the slogan of “ASAN love toward children”, turns into reality wishes and dreams of children through the www.asanmektub.az website.
Implementation: The concept of the project is as follows. Every child under 14 from all over Azerbaijan can write a letter of wish and ask for a dream gift, which is collected by ASAN volunteers and uploaded to the www.asanmektub.az portal. Then any benevolent person privately or representing an organization may choose any letter or letters and assume commitment to realize the wish/wishes by leaving on the website his/her name and contact details. Afterwards, that person is contacted by a volunteer acting as “ASAN Messenger”, and they agree on a date and time when the gift can be collected.
The gift is then delivered to a child in any part of Azerbaijan by the ASAN Messenger, while a photo proof of the gift delivery is sent to the citizens via e-mail or other communication.
The project does not allow for donation of money and luxury goods, as well as second-hand goods. Gifts must be brand new. Also, the project guarantees the confidentiality of benefactors upon their preference.
Achievements: The project was launched in March 2015 and up until April 2016, more than 680 letters have been received and wishes of more than 570 kids have already been fulfilled.
Replication: Participation in the project is free. Maintaining the portal is done by ASAN volunteers and requires minimum financial resources.
Budget: Participation in the project is totally free of charge. Maintaining the portal is done by ASAN Volunteers and requires minimum financial resources.
Contact person: Mr. Elchin Huseynli
Phone: (+994) 12 444 74 41
Weblink: www.vxsida.gov.az, www.asan.gov.az
Goals and Objectives: To improve efficiency in the social services delivery by expanding the coverage of e-services in social services and minimizing the contact between citizens and officials in the process the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of Population launched an automated system of pension appointment through a single call center in 2013. It came up as a new solution in follow-up to the implementation of system of personified registration of the insured persons.
Implementation: The system allows a person who has reached the retirement age to automatically activate his/her right to a pension on the basis of personified account information, by calling the Call-center (190-0) and without visiting any government institution and not presenting any documents. Every citizen who reached the retirement age can call this number and get real-time pension right by providing ID number. The citizen will immediately get information about the size of his/her pension, and the address of the bank, where he can get a pension plastic card and the date when the card can be picked up from the bank.
Pension payments are transferred directly to a pensioner’s card account from the treasury account of the Ministry, without interaction with intermediary organizations. It ensures the implementation of the principle of targeted payments to avoid delays or other negative cases in the delivery of public benefits and leads to the improvement and accounting the payment of pensions and benefits to the population. Nowadays, almost 100% pensions are paid with the plastic card.
Achievements: This system is extremely simplified the mechanism of appointment of pension increases, that enables everyone to self-assess their retirement. Currently, on the basis of information received through the e-government portal or the website of the Ministry any person can check the pension capital accumulated on his/her individual account and calculate the amount of pension using the e-service retirement calculator.
The system has also contributed to increasing the transparency in the appointment process, removing unnecessary loss of time, simplifying the relationship between citizens and the social fund’s institutions, and minimizing the role of the human factor in the process.
Replication: The solution can be of interest for thepost-Soviet countries that undergo the process of reforming the old manual system of pensionos administration and management.
Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of Population of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Address: Salatin Askerov str, 85, Baku
Contact person: Ms. Irada Usubova
Phone: (+99412) 596 60 96